Different Organisations andbusinesses use different Management strategies and approaches in improvingtheir productivity, run the affairs of the Organisations, Companies and makethem grow and dominate the market. This article evaluates the influence ofclassical and human relations approaches in Management today. To begin with,the article analyses Management in respect of theories and principles ofManagement which looks at management as a system that looks at all spheres of work and workplaces, it includesplanning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling accessible resources torealize the goal or target of an organisation (Skyway University, 2016). Differenttheories that includes classical approach by Fredrick Taylor, Henri Fayol’sadministrative principles approach, Max weber’s bureaucratic approach. Furthertheory X and Y by Douglass McGregor, Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies, AbrahamMaslow’s human needs theory.
All these theories have influence in the waymodern businesses are managed. The discussion in this paper will look at thesignificance and relevance of these theories to the modern way companies,businesses and industries manages their businesses.Most people andorganisations tend to refer management to specifically business environmentsalone. Management theories and its principles is also applicable toenvironments outside business such as Churches, Schools, Non-GovernmentalOrganisations (NGOs) and all other businesses that have workers in place. There are several theoriesof management, despite looking at other theories of management in thisdiscussion, the paper will pay much attention to two management theories,Classical and Human theories and how the influence modern environment.Classical Managementtheory looks and centres on the understandingthat workers or employees require and physicaland financial needs in their daily undertakings. These helpsworkers to enjoy the work they do and concentrate on delivering and achievingthe needs and objectives of the business, organisation or industry.
The Classical managementtheory has three key elements and schools of thought; these are Logical Administration,which recognizes the most significant and perfect way for the attainmentof set objectives, Bureaucratic Administration, which centres onrules and technique/method, pecking order and clear divisionof work; and Administrative management, which emphasizesthe circulation and flow stream of data and informationinside the organisation (www.lehren.org)Frederick Taylor’s theory ofscientific management established systems for improving work processefficiency. Centred on a systematic and organised study and investigation ofworkers/people, tasks and work conduct, Taylor’s theory organised work processinto the smaller units, or sub-tasks, in an effort to decide the best effectiveway for effecting a specific undertaking in any organisation/business, industryor workplace. Taylor’s technique comprised of testing the culmination of different tasks todecide the amount of work that can be effectively done within a certain amountof time. Taylor’s theory states that organisations needs to come up with themost ideal methodology for doing any job, and these include training ofworkers/employees to manage each component of an organisation. Taylor’s theorybrought various changes to hierarchical administration amid a period whenautocratic administration style was the only way of managing businesses. In hiswork experience, Taylor started working as an apprentice operator inPhiladelphia, USA.
He worked and from a junior position to a senior positionwhere he became the chief engineer at the Midvale Engineering Works after thathe worked with the Bethlehem Works where he investigated his ideas whichcontributed to the management theory. Frederick Taylor was the first toidentify and emphasize the need for accepting a scientific approach to the taskof controlling and managing a business. He identified the causes of lowefficiency in industry and concluded that much of waste and inefficiency is dueto the lack of order and system in the approaches of organisation. Heidentified that the management was usually ignorant of the amount of work thatcould be done by an employee in a day as also the best way of doing the job.
Asa result, it remained largely at the discretion of the employees whodeliberately avoided work. He therefore, suggested that those responsible formanagement should adopt a scientific approach in their work, and make use of”scientific method” for achieving higher efficiency. The scientificapproach involved, Observation, Measurement, Experimentation and Inference(Skyway University 2015).
Taylor’s theory andprinciples were based on his own experiences at work where he worked as ashop-floor worker and thereafter worked as a manager in a steel company. Hemade an analysis of his work and observed that workers exerted little effortsin their work and this produced little output. He unveiled the reason for thisinefficient work practices and related this to the concept of ‘soldiering” andrule of thumb’. Principles of scientificmanagement are being practiced in the modern business management, McDonald’sthe fast food chain uses the four principles of Fayol’s and Taylor’s scientifictheory in the administration and running the affairs of their business.McDonald’s was founded originally as barbecue restaurant in 1940 and laterchanged to chain of fast foods in 1955, the business follows corporatestandards (McDonald’s, 2016a) a typical example of application of Fayo’lsmanagement principles.
The management of McDonalds implements Fayol’s divisionof work, unity of command, Discipline, every employee does one job, and thesupervisors of the restaurant have powers to give disciplined orders and areresponsible for the affairs and running of the restaurant with one critical objectivewhich is inculcated in their slogan “Our Success depends on each of usaccepting personal responsibility for doing the right thing” (McDonald’s,2016a, pp.8.).McDonald’s fast food chainhas demonstrated a distinctive significance through the execution of well-organizedapproaches influenced by classical and human relations theories.
In the modern world,different organisations and businesses use classical approach to management. TheActive Youth Initiative for Social Enhancement (AYISE) is one best example of aNon-Governmental Organisation which uses the classical Management approach. Theorganisation rewards its workers by giving them incentives and bonuses for thehard working spirit demonstrated in the achievement of the organisation’soverall objectives.
The organisation developed standards for every positionexisting in it, employees on the same grade and position have same jobdescription and same take home package. Working conditions for the organisationwere standardized and brought uniformity among workers. All these are supportedby the procedure and processes the organisation use when recruiting itsemployees, the criteria ensures that people with enough experience and rightexpertise take up positions in line with their areas of competencies. Allemployees are scrutinised fully before they are engaged for the position theywere interviewed for. The Organisation has furthera very good staff training methodology, on the job training which has a handson kind of training where employees are exposed to the job they were recruitedfor, secondly staff members are sent to different training workshops forcapacity building in line with their line of duties which contributes to theattainment of the organisation objectives.In the Modern management,incentives and performance are interconnected, this is evidenced by the actionsof a G4 security company in Malawi which rewarded its employees duringChristmas festive season. The best performing employees were rewarded withChristmas take home packages this motivated employees and felt part of thecompany. Despite this motivation, those who were not recognised could easilydevelop hatred towards those rewarded for best performance.
The other important elementin Organisation or businesses is the employee relation which brings togetherworkforce in achieving common goal. Different Organisations promotes andadvance the agenda of employee relations derived from the human relation theoryby Elton Mayo. The Human relation theory emphasises on human beings,psychological motivation, and informal group behaviour.The human relations movementin industry originated through a research by Elton Mayo.
He carried out aresearch at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company between 1927and 1932. The Hawthorne experiments provides a clear image of the evolutionfrom scientific management to the early human relations movement. The theory outlinesdiverse thoughts, practices and policies. Employee relations deals with creatinga dynamic group in any workplace.
The employee relation theory considers theimportance of implementing specific components of job satisfaction whichincludes promotion of performing employees, creating a conducive workenvironment where workers enjoy the atmosphere of work, development andimplementation of employee development initiatives, provision of bonuses andincentives to workers. When performing employees are recognised it improves andpromotes employee relation and employees are encouraged to work extra hard,this enables the business and organisation to easily achieve its objective. “Mayorevealed that an organisation was more than a formal structure or arrangementof functions. He wrote that an organisation is a social system, a system ofcliques, grapevines informal status systems rituals and a mixture of logical,non-logical and illogical behaviour.” (Mayo, 1943).
The international LabourOrganisation is one such organisation that follows the principles of humanrelation theory, the organisation ensures that its employees have the capacityto deliver its objectives by training them in different fields. This is donethrough offshore trainings, where staff members and government officials aresent to its staff college in Turin -Italy for capacity building programmes. Thisinitiative increases the capacity and morale of its workers. Workers apply thenew knowledge and skills obtained from the trainings they participated in theirdaily activities. This has enabled ILO to successfully achieve its set ofobjectives in different countries (www.iloitc.org).Edward Mcgregor’s theory Xand theory Y was influenced by the Hawthhorne studies and Maslows theory.
Macgregor believed that workers working under the management of Managers with TheoryX do not like work, lacks ambition, they are irresponsible and further to that,they are resistant to change and prefer to be led rather than leading others.This is opposed to Theory Y in which managers holding theory Y have workers whoare enthusiastic to work and have self-control and have accepts leadershiproles and responsibilities (Unicaf 2018). Theory X provides that employees needto be controlled, guided to do the job and should be forced to toward theattainment of organisation’s objectives.
To the other hand theory Y is allabout people components that make people like to work, this also emphasizesthat workers work, learn and look for responsibilities under a conduciveworking environment (Zilbert, 2000). Theory X and Y by Macgregor cements thehuman relation theory, it promotes the strategy of managing people in anorganisation or business.McGregor’s theory issupported by Arygris theory of adult personality, in this Theory, Managers wholead workers positively achieves maximum productivity.In an effort to maximizeproductivity and production in their industry, Japan Tobacco Internationalapplies Theory Y of Management in which workers were trained to build theircapacity on fighting child labour. The training was conducted with the aim ofhigh production of tobacco produced without the involvement of children. Afterthe training Managers helped Workers/Leaf Technicians in coming up with workplans towards the achievement of zero tolerance to child labour and productionof high quality tobacco. These workers implemented their plans without muchinfluence from their managers. This has resulted in the reduction of childlabour in the areas where the company buys tobacco from (ARISE 2016).
Due tohigh impact of the initiative, this has improved the image of the company,increased relationship with farmers and employs of the company. The impact hasalso cemented the relationship between the leadership of the company and itsworkers.Social interface in theorganisation brings together workers who work as a team.
One of the maincharacteristic of the human relations approach is the group of employee takenas the main unit of analysis instead of individual employee. This theory isparamount and plays a significant role in all industries. The theory generatesideas emphasizing the significance of team work and leadership, goodcommunication, motivation, and work design (Mullins, 2005). The conducive workenvironment in any organisation and business is tantamount to high productivityhence great need to be established and implemented because it promotes employeeperformance which Leeds into high productivity in the organisation andachievement of the business objective.
Teamwork which is one element of workenvironment is still being considered one best strategy for advancing theagenda of several organisations and businesses in the world. In Malawi the bestexample is Airtel Malawi which promotes team work in promoting the overallbusiness objective. Another company is Shoprite Malawi which motivates itsstaff and promotes team work. Shoprite rewards the best performing staff andgives them incentives. Team work is the best in any workplace because it bringsPositive impact and it leads to high productivity, continuous improvement andexpanding market share in its business environment and competes well with otherbusinesses. This is why Airtel Malawi has expanded in Malawi. Team work is also promotedthrough the implementation of team building workshops. Circle for IntegratedCommunity Development (CICOD) is a local Non-Governmental Organisation inMalawi.
In 2015, the organisation recently conducted a team building workshop,the purpose was to train all workers on how they should work together andaccomplish the objectives of different projects the organisation isimplementing. This was done as a measure to promote team work. The workshopcovered topics and sessions which were theories and principles of management.The training strengthened the relationship between the management and workersof the organisation which in the end helped the organisation achieve overallobjectives of the several projects which includes the project on theelimination of worst forms of child labour in two districts in Malawi.
Theproject managed to achieve all the targets set for the project. Further to theworkshop, the Organisation rewarded the best performing employees with acertificates of recognition for the best performing employee. This has not juststrengthened the winner but created competition among workers so they can alsobe recognised at the end of the year. The competition is to the advantage ofthe organisation as it will achieve the objectives of its existence. (CICOD2017) Theories of Management isnot totally different from the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)which seeks companies and business to continuously improve their products andmeet customer satisfaction. TQM is considered astandalone model of discipline in as far as management and customersatisfaction is concerned, TQM gurus, PhillipCrosby, Edward Deming and Joseph Juran have advanced the model for theadvancement of total quality management and emphasized on customer focus, process orientation andteamwork.
Total quality management advances team work approach in which itemphasizes that for the attainment of quality products, workers must believe inteam work, it believes that “two heads are better than one”, The use ofdifferent methodologies such as brainstorming, discussion and quality controltools, team work correct problems and challenges. The success of any businesslies in team work. Companies regularly have team meetings every week forworkers to discuss and plan for the work ahead of that week (Crosby 1979).Every good example of this team work meetings is the International LabourOrganisation in Malawi which meets every Monday to plan and prioritize work forthe week. The connection between modernmanagement approaches and those of the past period are the main aspects ofmanagement; leadership, control and developing the organisation business. Whilegreat weight is on effective leadership to motivate and building the capacityof workers through coaching, one can’t reject the other aspects for effectivemanagement; to control and manage business efficiency and to advance thebusiness, strategize application of decision making, policies and practices toinsure future business success (Karlof & Loevingsson, 2005, pp.
4). The Human Relations Approachemphasizes the significance of the informal organisation that involves theformal structure of the organisation (Mullins, 2005). This informalorganisation influences the behaviours of workers and employees of the business.The Human Relations approachsees the organisation as an open system where people’s needs and values shouldbe managed in order to attain goals of the organisation (Unicaf 2017). (Mainul and Addul, 2009,p35) states that Human relation theory identifies the social and physiologicalelements which can be observed in these days with its ability to provide morebenefits to the organisations/businesses and workers themselves. These benefitsinclude Team management (Coordinated team), Motivated and charged employees,all these advances, promotes and increases business productivity in anyworkplace. Different Non-Governmental Organisations have recruited the cream ofemployees due to how they motivate their employees.
People have left theirprevious jobs either from the public sector (government) and joined the privatesector and Non-Governmental Organisations. Though the classical andhuman relation theories have become absolute, the analysis and management stylein different organisations shows that they are critical and important inrunning the affairs and management of the workforce in all the businesses and organisations.Though business, companies and industries do not use all theories at once, theapplication of one or two theories of management in the modern business sectorhas proved to be a tool for business expansion. Several Organisation have used theoriesof management in advancing their agenda, work relationships, inspiringemployees through rewarding best performers while promoting the agenda of theirbusinesses.