(cultivated energy needs is the most basic concern.

in flooded region of Thailand and Bangladesh.). The life cycle of rice is
divided into the vegetative phase (including germination, seedling, and
tillering stages) and the reproductive phase (including panicle initiation and
heading stages).

Rice is the single most important source of
calories for humans. Among cereal, rice is grown mainly for direct human
consumption with very little for other uses. Out of the
440 million metric tons (MMT) of polished rice produced in the world in 2010,
80 % went into direct human food supply (Annual
report, Food and Agriculture Organization,
2016). Rice production and consumption is highly localized. While
populations of low-income countries increased by 90% between 1966 and 2000,
paddy rice production during the same period increased by 130% (Mcclean et al., 2002; Khush, 2004). In the International
market, rice is not a heavily traded commodity and some of the reasons for this
are (1) global rice trade accounts for only 7% of total production; (2) rice is
mostly eaten in the same country where it is produced and a shortfall in
production results in volatility in rice prices; (3) many Asian countries have
strict policies and restrictions on rice imports (import tariffs and tariff
rate quotas) and exports in order to achieve domestic food security and to
protect producer prices and income, and (4) the trade is highly specific by
rice variety (indica, japonica, or aromatic rice), the degree of milling
(percentage of broken rice) and degree of
processing (paddy, parboiled, brown, or white rice). Lately the supply chain
for rice even in local market is
improving and the considerably large population of people directly or
indirectly dependent on the production chain of rice being benefitted through
government schemes such as assisting farmers, increase in contract farming that
stimulates consolidation of grain production, the implementation of the
farm-to-fork concept in emerging corporate farms, and better traceability and
control of operations built into the rice supply chain. Vast populations of
most of the developing nations are economically backward and for them meeting
daily energy needs is the most basic concern. Staple foods such as starchy
roots, rice, wheat and other cereals provide the cheapest source of energy. For such
low income consumers, rice is considered to be the most preferred and
available staple. In Asia, 90% of the world’s rice is produced (mainly various indica cultivars) and consumed by the
people. So, indica cultivar is very
important and its quality improvement has great impact on a large human population worldwide.