Contiguity will be associated with the stimulus in

Contiguity Theory

This theory derived from the research of Guthrie proposing that if the association between stimulus and response is established in time and/or space will likely to be correlated1.

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This theory proposes that:


?           Conditioning is established only if the organism actively reacts.


?           Because learning needs the conditioning of particular developments, guideline must present tasks in details.



?           Being exposed to numerous degree of fluctuations in stimulation is desirable so as to create generalized response.


?           The last response is the one that will be associated with the stimulus in the learning situation; therefore, it should be proper.


Guthrie argued that, in contiguity hypothesis, rewards or penalties have little influence on learning because they happen after the connection between stimulus and response is established. As sales promotions are considered as a means to reward their customers, contiguity theory will not be further deliberated2.