conditions were affecting Descartes health. After only fouror five lessons on the 1st of February he was diagnosed withpneumonia and he passed away on the 11th of February 1650 at the ageof 53. In 1663 the pope put his works in the category of prohibitedbooks, books that contradicted the church, books that he for his own safety hehad not published because he knew that an execution would follow, after whathappened to Galileo.
There are many commonly used works of Descartes we see inthe modern day are for example the Cartesian coordinate system and powers alongwith the laws of refraction and inflection and a lot of the science we knowtoday, this shows the importance of Descartes as we use his work daily. Perhaps most importantly however as mentioned earlier on,Descartes spent many days subsequent to his daughters death attempting to setup a substructure to establish the most fundamental truths about the universe,he was obsessed with figuring out how to separate what we can know withcertainty from everything else, to achieve this Descartes he took absolutelyeverything he thought he knew off the scene and then tried to figure out whathe could put back on it, basically he erased all scientific discoveries sincethe beginning of the human existence, this method of philosophical inquiry hecame up with is known as “methodological skeptism” . what Descartesdiscovered was both startling and very frustrating; he couldn’t prove anythingthrough empiricism, what he figured out was that because we experience theworld entirely through our senses and our senses tend to be unreliable, it’sactually impossible for us to know anything with certainty, and everything wethink we know is actually composed entirely of differing grounds of belief. NeverthelessDescartes kept at it and after a while he finally came up with a single factthat he could unapologetically announce that he knew definitely couldn’t bedoubted by anyone because of its undeniable truth and that was that he existed, Descartes defended this conclusion with the argument that for him to beasking any questions about the nature of existence then there must existsomething to actually ask the question or more simply as he would say “cogitoergo sim – I think therefore I am”. Some other things he added that he knew with certainty wasthe fact “various axioms of geometry” existed, for example that a trianglealways has three sides no matter what beliefs you have it is undeniable.
It wasvia this argument that Descartes believed that he could prove the existence of god,that in the same way as his definition of his triangle necessitates theexistence of triangle the definition of god necessitates the existence of god,this is called the ontological argument. Descartes also putforward of Cartesian dualism which supposes that the universe made of twocategorical stuff, the regular matter that you witness daily in a “non-materialsubstance of the mind and spirit”, he believed that transcendental theories ofmatters like a living being possessing a soul were “subject to scientific andlogic inquiry” like everything else. He believed that he located the human soulinside the brain in the pineal gland.
My opinion concerning the nature of our existence doesnaturally accept Descartes’s logical thinking ( I think therefore I am ), but Iwould look at the proof of our existence in more a more spiritual way that ifwe have a natural path and goal to amount to something in life or even on adaily or hourly basis, then there must be some mechanism within us thatrequires motivation and willingness to sustain or enrich our own existence ,and that mechanism proves that we exist.