COMPARISON major OS Server namely, the Windows 2016



Use Case Scenario: Sue Crawford is
the CIO of a new tech company start-up which has been well funded by a venture
capital group.  She is getting ready to
hire her IT staff and purchase computer hardware (servers).  Since she currently has no staff or
equipment, she would like some advice in terms of the O/S she should deploy and
put in her specification documents for purchasing as well as the skills she may
need from the staff she hires. (Compare Windows Server 2016 VS. Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Server)


Abstract: This research paper tries to
elaborate on the comparison between the two major OS Server namely, the Windows
2016 Server and the Red Hat Linux Server. By keeping certain key criteria in
mind, the comparison is aimed which Server seems the best suitable for the
above-mentioned case scenario.

Key areas for comparison includes:

1.       Training and support


and Restore





8.       Total Cost

and Support:

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server Viewpoint:

Though Linux gives the facility of much customization, it comes with
certain drawbacks too. The community of Linux users being active doesn’t mean they
are helpful every-time. Many of the experienced Linux users having more
sophisticated aren’t always ready to share the knowledge that they have with
the new learners of Linux. There’s an atmosphere of attitude and because of
that, it inhibits the new learners to get the best from the Linux OS that they
are adapting to. While when we talk about the Windows Server users, we can get
the tech support all hours of all weeks.

Despite, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server is largely used and
selected by about ninety percent of the fortune five hundred companies. The
specialized support is given through mean of TAMs (Technical Account Managers).
Resolving the problems when or before they occur and to help the customer on
major business needs are the key areas TAMs focus. Problem solving and building
the relationship are the top jobs of the technical account managers

About eighty-two percent of job posting for IT professionals with Linux
certification are for Red Hat Certified Professionals. As a result, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux also provides training and certifications for all those from
the ones who are new to Linux, experienced in Linux or masters of Linux. They
have certification courses like Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA),
and Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) taught by the experienced Red Hat

Windows Server 2016 Viewpoint:

The Windows Server 2016 has a very comprehensive technical content
library to provide info for the IT professionals to evaluate, plan, deploy, secure, and manage Windows
Server. Besides, the Microsoft products
are ubiquitously accepted by most of the vendors of the hardware. Though, a few
of the vendors may offer other server with their hardware, they always give the
Microsoft tech support.

Windows Server 2016 includes several
new features, which includes the Nano Server. A Nano Server is an installation
option (lightweight in nature) which is about 90% smaller than the Windows
Server deployments and the native container support. Moreover, Windows Server
2016 bring many improvements to the Hyper-V and also includes the storage
defined options.


User Administration:

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server Viewpoint:

The core part of the Red Hat Enterprise administration is the control of
users and the groups. The system user is either human or the account that was
created that is identified by a unique number called the unique numerical
identification number, user ID (UID). Now these users can have the permission
to do various operations like reading the files, writing to the files or even
executing other functionalities. The users can do all these on the files own by
its group. Now, to specify certain permission to the users outside of the
group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux have something call access control lists (ACL)
for files and directories; these are set by the owner. Moreover, Red Hat
Enterprise understands the user groups as an organization who work on common
purpose, which can be anything from permission to read, permission to write or
the permission to execute for the files owned by that group. They are also
associated with a group ID as GID just like the user UID.

Windows Server 2016 Viewpoint:

The administrator account is the account that gets created by default
when one first installs the Windows Server 2016. The account should be the one
that should have the highest privileges on the server but even for the users to
open certain simple general applications like a calculator, they can do it
through an administrative account; for that a local account needs to be created
and then the user can open and use all these applications. The reason behind
this might be because only the administrative works would be allowed to be done
by the administrative account and any non-administrative work would be denied
by the administrative account.


Backup and Restore:

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server Viewpoint:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux comes with several different programs for
backing up and restoring data. By themselves, these utility programs do not
constitute a complete backup solution. However, they can be used as the nucleus
of such a solution.

The tar utility
is well known among UNIX system administrators. It is the archiving method of
choice for sharing ad-hoc bits of source code and files between systems.
The tar implementation
included with Red Hat Enterprise Linux is GNU tar, one of the more feature-rich tar implementations.

Using tar, backing
up the contents of a directory can be as simple as issuing a command similar to
the following:

tar cf
/mnt/backup/home-backup.tar /home/

This command creates an archive file called home-backup.tar in /mnt/backup/. The archive
contains the contents of the /home/ directory. The resulting archive file will be
nearly as large as the data being backed up. Depending on the type of data
being backed up, compressing the archive file can result in significant size
reductions. The archive file can be compressed by adding a single option to the
previous command:

tar czf
/mnt/backup/home-backup.tar.gz /home/

Windows Server 2016 Viewpoint:

One amazing feature about Windows Server 2016 is regular backups.
Reliable ways for regular backups of the server and of the network computers
are provided by the Windows Server 2016. So, when there occurs a significant
amount of data loss, one can restore their data from their last successful
backup, on the server without having to do the restore of their completer
system. In other favourable situations, one can also perform the complete
restore of their system to their server.

The backup feature names Server Backup, backups the server which is
running Windows Server 2016. An external USB flash drive is used to backup the
data. The client computers in the network are backed up by the Client Computer

Online backup is also done of the files and folders on the server
through Microsoft Azure Backup feature. Moreover, the whole data that is
uploaded to the Microsoft Azure cloud is encrypted through passphrase before
the whole data gets into the Microsoft’s datacenter on the Internet.

An advantage to all of these is that one can restore files and folders
on one’s server after backup is done.


Performance Monitoring:

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server Viewpoint:

When there arises
issue or problems related to the performance, then Performance Monitoring is
used to address the problem and diagnose it. Performance Monitoring can be
conducted when the system is running much slow than expected or certain files
of applications fails to run properly.

So, the following
steps are done to perform the performance monitoring:

Identify the nature and scope of the
resource shortages by which the problem arises

The analysis of the data that is
collected regarding the problem is done so as to initiate what action is to be
performed to resolve the issue.

Monitoring tis continues until the
performance problem is resolved.

Therefore, the performance monitoring process is more detail oriented
and short lived.

Windows Server 2016 Viewpoint:

In Windows
Server 2016, the Performance Monitor tool can be used to check which programs
affects the system to how much measure. In other words, by collecting real time
data or by collecting log files, The Performance Monitor tool helps to analyse
how much the system is affected by certain program.

Collector set is used by the Windows Performance Monitor which comprises of the

1.      Performance Counters

2.      Event Trace Data

3.      Configuration Information



Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server Viewpoint:

anything is run on the public network, then security becomes one major aspect
to consider and enforce in the system

For the
purpose of management of identity and for authentication, the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Server provides the System Security Services Daemon, SSSD.
This new feature does the work by centralizing the identity and authentications
services. So, even if the connection was interrupted to the server, the service
can still identify the users. Red Hat Directory Server, Active Directory,
OpenLDAP, 389, Kerberos and LDAP are the services that are supported by SSSD as
authentication and identity services.

security set by administrator over all the file system and process is done by a
general-purpose Media Access Control MAC architecture. The Media Access Control
is added to the Linux kernel by the other new security feature known as
Security Enhanced Linux SELinux.

Windows Server 2016 Viewpoint:

security features offered by Windows Server 2016 include providing security in
virtualization, protecting administrator credentials, protecting the
applications that run on the operating system anywhere it’s deployed, detecting
security threats quickly by advanced auditing capabilities, increased
application isolation with Hyper-V containers and improved compliance and

keeping in mind, the dangers of the attack imposed by the intruder, the above
security provision were built. The protection services offered range from resistance
to threat and identity detection to managing privileged identity and also
imposing protection on the virtual machine environment.

The privileged
identity security protocol helps in imposing security to only allow the person
to access the data as much he/she is allowed to, on the basis of his/her
authorization. The Just In time protocol brings in the limited time scope people
can have administrator privileges; the Just Enough protocol brings limitation
to what the administrators can do.

major as well as interesting area where security is a must is in virtualization
technology. There are protections in the scenario of a virtual machine trying
to attack a host or a virtual machine trying to attack another virtual machine;
but there are no protections if attack is imposed by the host to the virtual
machine. So, if the virtual machine gets out of the organization through theft,
it can be run on any other system without limitations. Hyper-V comes with similar
kind of isolation as the windows Server when one runs the Hyper-V container so
that the virtual machine can be run on the person’s system with proper administrative


Command Line:

The command line is nothing but the text interfaces to the operating
system of the computer. Whether it be the command line in Windows, known as
CMD, or in Linux system, known as Linux shell or terminal, they allow one to do
manipulations on the files and directories without the GUI.

From the old UNIX Thompson shell, the Linux command line was developed
and enhance. The UNIX Thompson shell was derived from the primitive Multics
shell from where the word shell originated.

The Windows command prompt have their roots from the previously used
command line, the MS DOS which in turn was derived from the command line interface
called the console command processor. This control command processor interface
was based on the primitive operating system called RSTS.

The Linux have several different types of command for the command line
interface and much extended amount of manipulation and file system handling can
be achieved through the
Linux as compared to the command prompt of the Windows. Windows’ command does
offer similar operational function, but are nothing in comparison to the Linux.
Moreover, the Windows command prompt lacks sophistication and doesn’t have
provision for conducting conditional test or looping or redirection unlike Linux.
The Linux shell is more of like a programming environment while the Windows
command line is rustic in nature.


While Linux leads in the prospect of command line interface, it doesn’t have
a dedicated graphical user interface. Most of the work is attained in Linux
environment through the command line shell. While Windows have enhanced GUI and
dedicated single interface. The Linux OS doesn’t have its own built in GUI. Gnome,
KDE, Motif are the commercially free available interfaces for the Linux OS.

Moreover, choosing from these available GUIs for the Linux is not so
easy as it looks because each GUI has its own specific code. It doesn’t include
just importing libraries of that GUI but also to do the work of writing code
for that specific GUI. Besides, vendors don’t give support for all of the
available GUIs and only few of them.

While this kind of problem of multiple GUIs is not present in the
Windows OS where Windows have a single dedicated GUI like the MAC. By this
windows differs from Linux GUI interface.


Total Cost:

The challenge
is to give the services by incurring as low cost as possible. If the Total Cost
of Ownership is reduced, a considerable amount of dollars can be saved and be
used in other areas of research. So, challenge is in getting the most output by
incurring the least cost and at the same time having the best IT efficiency.

research study was conducted by the Red Hat Enterprise for comparing the two-leading
infrastructure for the IT namely, the Red Hat Linux server and the Windows
Server. The sample study covered variety of industries in a wide area across
Middle East, Europe, Asia, North America.

gathering a much comprehensive data of the research, it was found that there
was 34% lower annual total cost of ownership incurred for the industry
platforms based on the Red Hat as compared to the Windows Server platforms.

savings incurred by each platform was also calculated and found to be 29% lower
server infrastructure costs, 41% lower cost on IT staffing and 64% lower cost
on lost productivity of user for Red Hat as compared to the windows server
platform for each of the three criteria mentioned.

Conclusion: The most
prominent factor one should consider in choosing Windows Server is for the prevalence
of Microsoft and the most prominent factor for choosing Linux should be for the
users. Before choosing any platform, one will surely think about the scope of
his/her knowledge in that specific platform. As discussed in this research
paper, that about ninety percent of the top 500 companies are running the Linux
platform and about the eighty percent of the internet is dependent on Linux
too. So, one can deduce that the ones who understand the technology better and
the prospects of the platforms choose Linux and the ones that don’t understand technology
to much depth choose windows server. So, for the starters, the Microsoft platform
would be a better choice. In case of the above-mentioned use case scenario, as it’s
the start-up company, though it has vendor support for capital investment, the
choice of the OS platform will be based majorly on the staff experience and
their adaptability to the system.