Choosean international agency or an NGO involved in education in a developing countryand critically examine its policies, practice and performanceIntroductionNGO’s are Non GovernmentOrganisations that work around the globe to help provide struggling anddeveloping countries. Through this essay I will be looking at what NGO’s are,what their goals are in regards to education in a specific developing country.This will allow me to critically evaluate its policies and performance in mychosen country of India.India as a developing countryIndia is the world’s 6th largestcountry and boasts a population of 1.2 billion people, however a shocking 1 in5 of the Indian population is below the poverty line with 80% of those livingin rural areas. Equally important in the lack of the lack of regard for theimportance of education or the accessibility to make use of it with India hometo 46% of the worlds illiterate and 24% of families having no literate adultover 25.India from 1858 and 1947 was a colony in the British empire where to begin with Britishgovernment showed very little interest in educating the population of thesubcontinent with Christian missionaries starting the processes.
When theBritish government did begin educating the population they used traditionalBritish methods of education with a teacher in front of a class room withstrict discipline and memorising information. After they gained independence inaugust 1947 the Indian government wasleft with the responsibility of educating its own population.UNICEF UNICEF stands for United Nations InternationalChildren’s Emergency Fund and was set up after the second world war to providefor the needs of children in the aftermath of the conflict by the UnitedNations. Subsequently, UNICEF has worked for children and young people aroundthe globe in 190 counties suffering with poverty, poor sanitation and livingconditions, lack of education and the surrounding armed conflicts in theircountry of residence whatever issues may prevent children making the most oftheir chances.They are needed because of issueswith the right to education allowing officials in countries like India to takeadvantage and the resulting levels of corruption and bribery has resulted inclosers of schools and facilities resulting in more children out of school in Indiaafter the induction of the act then before. UNICEFPolicies UNICEF’s policies on educationare according to Unicef UK. 2018.
Education – Unicef UK . ONLINE are’Every child has the right to an education – whatever their background, genderor ethnicity’. As a NGO related to the UN they believe in article 26 of thehuman rights act that every child has the right to education and that’s one ofthe main missions they set out to complete when they set up in a country tohelp provide for the suffering children in developing countries and westernnations alike.Additionally, they work toprovide equipment to schools and help ensure that children are safe and haveall the tools needed to learn and excel in schools. Unicef UK.2018. Education – Unicef UK .
ONLINE states that ‘ In 2016 alone,Unicef provided school books and other learning materials to 15.7 millionchildren around the world’ as part of their task to provide all children inIndia and globally with the means to learn.Moreover, they will work to helpeliminate child labour so that children can instead of working to help supportfamilies can instead focus on bettering themselves through education. Anexample of this in India would be when UNICEF. 2005. India: Project helpschild labourers return to school | India | UNICEF. ONLINE states ‘ theUNICEF-supported National Child Labour Project (NCLP) has helped over 3,600children out of child labour and into school’ as they work to help even morechildren out of work and into schools as its illegal to hire a child (under 14years old) in any type of hazardous employment.Another aim of UNICEF is toincrease accessibility to schools to help encourage more children to attendschool.
Such as UNICEF. 2018. Realizing limitless possibilities:Technology empowers people with disabilities. ONLINE in which it discuses aUNICEF programme that brought computers into schools in the early 2000s thathave allowed children with disabilities to take part in the same level ofeducation as non-disabled children and empower them to make the most of theirpotential.
UNICEF also works to help the estimated 8.1 million children getinto school and to combat the increasing parentage of children in schooldropping out.All of these policies seem to belong term goals and are not in my opinion possible in a short period of time.
However they are noble goals that should be strived towards and NGO’s can helpwhere the governments of developing countries like India struggle to helpeducate the population with around 90.3% of all donations to UNICEF used inprogrammes. In addition, these policies also allow UNICEF to provide astructure and recourses to developing countries and keeps the NGO focused onits goals and targets so it doesn’t deviate from its aim to help provide thechildren of nations like India with their best chance in life and give themopportunities children in other nations take advantage of and waste becausethey have never experienced life without it as they are privileged enough to beborn with these chances.
UNICEF’saffect on India’s education In India the government workswith NGO’s like UNICEF to empower girls to pursue a better life via education,there are a number of reasons that girls are not given the same right toeducation as the boys are with cultural norms and traditions pressuring theminto family life instead. However, UNICEF has a number of programmes to helpeducate the girls of India such as promoting gender equality to help modernisethe country and bring it in line with the rest of the world in terms ofdiscrimination; And the work they take part in to reduce the levels of childpoverty so that daughters not have to work to provide for their family as theirbrothers educations are prioritised which is an attitude they are hoping toprevent with education.Personally, I agree with thispolicy being given priority in India as Olmos, G, 2011. The benefits ofeducating girls in developing countries with a case study in Livingstone,Zimbabwe. The benefits of educating girls in developing countries with acase study in Livingstone, Zimbabwe, Online states ‘ investment in theeducation of girls may be the highest return investment available in thedeveloping world” writes Larry Summers, former chief economist of the WorldBank’ and ‘ Key in the current discussion on the benefits of female educationis the idea of a ripple effect.
A finding that greatly supports theintergenerational benefits of educating girls is that that women reinvest 90percent of their income into their family’. And so this illustrates the needfor developing countries to educate the girls as it will have a marginal affecton other issues in the country such as the levels of families in low income andthe levels of illiteracy in families.Modernising education to make itmore accessible and effective is another aim of UNICEF and other NGO’s withtheir production of alternative learning centres to where children can make useof computers and are assessed on their ability to learn and can earncertificates from the NGO that are recognised by some universities.
Reachingout … taking education to the unreached! | UNICEF. 2008. Reaching out …taking education to the unreached! | UNICEF. ONLINE states that ‘ In lessthan three years, about 70% of Delhi’s out-of-school children were persuaded tojoin Alternative Learning Centres run by NGOs.
Over 25,000 children underwentbridge courses and qualified to join formal schools’. This conveys theeffectiveness of modernisation as a method to reach out of school children ofIndia and help them work their way into established mainstream schools.This is another affective policythat UNICEF works towards as modernisation of education in India will keepstudents competitive in the international job market with computers part ofdaily life and ensure that they have the skills needed to join in the levels ofglobalisation where the world is becoming more and more connected via theinternet allowing easy international communication.In summary, the impact thatUNICEF has had on education in India is a positive motion that does a lot ofgood in order to help children have access to education that didn’t previouslyand improve the recourses available and the pool of knowledge available tothose already attending schools. This will allow these children to make themost of their childhood and keep them out of dangerous employment and allowthem to flourish instead of having to work to help support a family below thepoverty line.UNICEFPerformance in India UNICEF has taken on a nearlyimpossible task of trying to fix all the problems in the world in order to helpprovide children of the earth what they need in order to safely reach theirpotential. So it’s important that the progress and impact they have ondeveloping countries is measured, India today is a magazine in India that hastaken a look at the impact of UNICEF in India and so India Today. 2015.
UNICEFin India: Tomorrow will be too late. ONLINE states ‘ Far too many grandoiseplans aimed at benefiting the rural population have failed because of theinability of urban-oriented workers and policy-makers to understand, absorb andevaluate the rural situation and the rural mind’ which depicts a lack of focuson UNICEFs part to promote better health, infrastructure and quality andaccessible education to the growing urban areas of India where the populationof children is denser. Furthermore, the article goes on to talk about failedprojects about family planning and agriculture that resulted in huge amounts ofwasted recourses that could have been better spend on alternative learningcentres in urban areas or on improving roads and paths to make schools moreaccessible. However there are a number ofsuccess stories in India where UNICEF have managed to help a number of childreninto education such as helping to increase primary school participation to’94.6%’ and primary school female participation to ‘81.4%’.
This depicts alarger increase in enrolment and attendance of schools or educational facilitywhich will mean a more educated population which should help to reduce theoverall poverty level and improve the country as a whole. And so I believe that overall theimpact that UNICEF has had on the Indian subcontinent has been a positive oneallowing more children access to education and the recourses and teachersneeded to make the most out the opportunities they are given.ConclusionIn conclusion, I feel that NGO’slike UNICEF may struggle with certain developing countries but overall thework, recourses and effort they put into countries like India where they workto improve and modernise schools and educational facilities or to reduce levelsof discrimination to encourage more girls to enrol into schools is a necessaryfor the impact it has on the developing country. Furthermore, The work that UNICEF has done inIndia to improve the quality of education is a success in achieving what theirpolicies set out for them to achieve and to help with globalisation and bring developingcountries into the 21st century and in line with the rest of the world toimprove their life chances as I have mentioned in previous points. Thus, UNICEF has a positiveperformance on the country working with the UN and the local and national governmentit allows a number of children to enjoy a what is a triviality to otherchildren but a luxury to them and reach their full potential and be whateverthey want to be.