Chapter handling has become a wide concept covering

Chapter I


1.1 Introduction

chapter contains the introduction to the selected industry, background of the
study, the research objectives, research questions, and significance of the
study. Furthermore, it describes research design.


Grievance could be
introduced as a matter presented by employees which exactly or may affect the
condition of employment and situation that appears conflicting to the
provisions of an applicable collective agreement or a contract of employment, to
workrules, or laws or regulations, or to the custom or usage of the occupation
(Hook,Rollinson, Foot&Handley, 1996).  They further stated that whether it
affects or not to the condition of employment, it can lead to collective
disputes in future.

Grievance handling system
is the heart of employee relationship with-out proper system for handling
grievances, relationship become an abortive process (McKersie, & Shropshire, 1962; Beletz &  Mang ,1977). Nurse & Devonish, (2007) indicated that initially grievances
handling was considered as a narrow concept. Therefore it only focused on
employees’ grievances. However, today most of the organizations focus on
sustainable relationships with employees, and grievance handling has become a
wide concept covering a wide range of areas and it cannot be considered as an
isolate function such as grievance handling within short period. And they have
further mentioned that it is a collection of various components such as
economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic relationships.

This study is hoping to
significantly investigate the CKT Apparel (Pvt) Ltd (Mihila) –
Agalawatta. The CKT Apparel (Pvt) Ltd (Mihila) –
Agalawatta is one of the leading manufacturing company in Sri
Lankan apparel industry.

The apparel manufacturing
industry has emerged as the country’s main export earner and the largest single
employment provider in the industrial sector (Department of Census and
Statistics, 2012). Further Dheerasinghe states
that it has been the Sri
Lanka’s largest gross export earner since 1986 and accounted for more than 52
per cent of total export earnings of the country. It is also the country’s
largest net foreign exchange earner since 1992.The characteristics of
the textile and apparel industry, such as increased competition, short product
life cycles, long production cycles and increased fragmentation, make the task
of matching supply with demand all the more difficult(Chaudhry& Hodge,
2012)., Kelegama and Epaarachchi (2002), in a study of the productivity of the garment
sector, identify a number of issues relating to low labor productivity where substantial
improvement is possible through upgrading the human relationship.

Mangers when handling
grievances should concern and identify that people are all different and they
have diverse profiles: they bring different life and employment experiences,
qualifications, interests, skills, abilities and competencies. However, people
need care and attention of others to perform effectively and consistently at a
high level (Wickramasinghe & Jayabandu, 2007)

Problem Statement

are expensive and time consuming, even ending at the first stage of handling.(Estey,
1986).As well as Nurse & Devonish, 2007) stated not properly grievances become
more problem to the organization as well as society also. Furthermore Klaas,( 1989) indicated swift response of
managers that leads to quick resolution of a grievance will boost employee
morale and productivity. And researcher cited as employees who have access to
the grievance procedure are less likely to quit the organization than those who
do not access to the procedure.

Based on above understanding, the
study formulates the research problem as follows;

“Why is managing grievances in
apparel sector organizations in Sri Lanka challenging to managers?”


Objectives of the Study

With the ultimate purpose of doing
the dissertation on managers’ perception of grievance, this study is trying to
accomplish following three main objectives at the completion of the study:

identify the grievance handling procedure

explore the challengers are faced by mangers when dealing with grievances

identify actions that could be utilized to overcome the challenges




Research Questions

Based on the research problem
related to this study, this study has come up with following three main
research questions to achieve the predetermine objectives.

is the procedure of grievances handling in the organization?

are the challenges faced by manages when handling grievances?

can they overcome the challenges?


























Chapter II

Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

The purpose of this
chapter is to review the literature relevant to the concepts which are related
to the current study. First, it explains about grievances then it moves on to,
grievance handling procedure. Finally, it discusses literature related to
Challenges managers face in handling grievance.

Views on grievances

Grievance intendsas anany
dispute that arises between an employer and employee as their feeling of having
been treated unfairly about
a (real or imaginary) wrong that are policies and procedure of organizational,
departmental or personal. (Gundry & Briggs,
1993; Wells & Spinks  1997).  Further more Nelson, 1979. revealedthat employees’
felling may be differ according to their job roles and their job level.Grievance
beginning involves at least three key individuals: supervisor, the employees,
and the shop steward. (Bemmels, 1994). Most reseachers concerned only employees’ aspect but Hunter & Kleiner,
2004 stated employer aspect of grievance as anyone having an affiliation with
an organisation can file a grievance on behalf of organization.

in different contexts

Grievances in four
different situations they are: economic, psychological, unhealthy working
condition and environment and structural. (Estey,
1986; Hook, 1996; Kuhn, 1962). As well as Klaas, (1989) stated organization grievances contexts be unionize and
non-unionize. Furthermore organization’s cultural values and expectations are
leaded perspectives (Gundry & Briggs, 1993).

Why grievances arise

frequently arise due to due to unclear contractual language that creates
differing interpretation, application and administration of its provision and
it lead to unhappiness, frustration, indifference, discontent,
poor morale, and poor efficiency (Beletz &
Meng, 1977). Furthermore grievances base on violation of a law,
violation of a term in an employment contract or violation of past practices. Wells & Spinks ( 1997). As well as Nelson, (1979) declared that when consider
supervisor, grievances arise when supervisors have dictatorially, when they
refuse to hear to employees complaints, when they provide inadequate or unclear
instruction or action or when they fail to report employee informed.