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This chapter will show the literature
and studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers for
further understanding of the subject matter of this research.

Effects on academic performance of school

objective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’s
academic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa
(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondary
schools in Makambako TC. The data used in his research was gathered involved 2
educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120
girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires and
documentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. The data is determined
by using inductive analysis procedures. Then find out that the longer the
distance students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schools
late and with empty stomachs. Mhiliwa claimed that location of school has lead
to mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail to
attain their educational goals.

of school distance and academic achievement

            This study aimed to investigate the relationship between
academic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. The
population was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. A
structured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using the
test re-test method to ensure its reliability. Using the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings of
the study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationship
between the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-East
Local Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationship
explained between the two variables.

journeys to school undermine Education

            “Negative impact of taking long journeys to school have affects
a student’s health and on their education achievement levels” claimed one of
the conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute of
the German health Care insurance company AOK. According to VBE (Verband Bildung
and Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither education
authorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours on
the student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. He
claimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body more
than in adults.

also stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically and
psychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go to
school and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessary
for a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomes
like exhaustion and headaches.  Adults
that are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptoms
and are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stress
and exhaustion.