Cars heat and cool very quickly but most house do not. Have you ever wondered what keeps heat throughout your house for it to circulate and stay warm on a cold day? Well what keeps it warm is something called insulation. Insulation is a foam, rubber or fiberglass sleeve that you put on pipes between walls to insulate everything from the cold. Its inusulates and keeps the house warm when heat energy is transferred by conduction through walls.The walls in any house or building in general is the most important aspect and structure element. There are many different insulations, insulations through windows, door, sealing, roof etc but throughout this report will be talking about insulations through walls. You will noticed the reason behind insulation is it prevents from the cold and allow warm heat to circulate but insulations also vary depending on which part of the world you live and the climate. Example I have family who live in trinidad and tobago, guyana and other islands and places where there’s a warmer climate so the building structure in those countries are way different because they have insulations but the material being used is also different because those countries are a little more poor so they used materials such as wood concrete and many other things. There are many ways walls in general can be constructed. Before the finishing product of dry walls is places, the walls have ro be frames and materials that are used to frame these walls are wood, steel, concrete but, the most common framing material being used by carpenter and many houses is wood. The advantages of using wood for framing is that when you get the finished product, it’s much easier for trim work such as hanging pictures because you have a place to put the nails. Soundproofing and insulation make for better sound resonation and wood is a strong material and can survive through many conditions especially throughout canada. Walls can fall into two categories. A load bearing wall bears a load from up above, usually another floor or roof load. A non-Load bearing wall is built independent of the main load bearing structure of the home. It can be either an interior or an exterior wall, depending on the framing design utilized. That’s just a brief definition on the two categories walls fall in. What is the R value? The R value is a way to measure thermal resistance through a given thickness of a material. Essentially its the ability of heat to transfer from hot to cold, through materials such as insulation. The higher the R-value, the more a material prevents heat transfer also, the R-value depends on materials’ resistance to heat conduction. To increase the R value of a wall, it all depends on the material you use to insulate it for example, using foam to insulate your walls, there are different types and what your gonna want to is is used the formula in order to calculate the r value which is R value= temperature difference multiplied by area multiplied by time divided by heat loss. By using that equation you can determine the material with a high R value and if your using foam to insulate your walls, you should use Extruded Polystyrene. Three most common materials used when insulating walls or home in generals are styrofoam,fiberglass and spray foam. Polystyrene foam better known as styrofoam is a petroleum-based plastic foam with many great insulative properties. Styrofoam is 95% air, allowing it to trap warm air and prevent heat loss when used as insulation. The trapped air inside the Styrofoam prevents heat from passing out of your home, making your heating system more efficient. Styrofoam has an R-value of 4.0 per 1 inch thickness. Fiberglass is a reinforced plastic material composed of glass fibers embedded in a resin matrix not cotton candy. When I was younger I used to think it was cotton candy and tried to eat it. It’s typically found in your basements and its unfinished you’ll see it. How does fibreglass work? Fiberglass insulation works by limiting air movement in the space that it occupies. Warmer air naturally moves towards a cooler space. The air trapped between the fibrous strands in fiberglass doesn’t move and creates still air, effectively eliminating convection and conduction and insulating the space. The R-value is 2.9 per 3.8 inch thickness. What is spray foam insulation? Spray foam insulation is made from two types of materials, polyurethane and isocyanate., These two materials together react to each other and cause their combined substance to expand and harden. During the installation process, both materials are sprayed at the same time from a spray foam gun, allowing them to expand and form a protective layer of spray foam insulation. This is the best insulator because its a powerful Insulator, its an incredible Energy Savings, its airtight allows warm heat to stay trap, its Seal Moisture Barrier and Deters Mold allows it not for it to create no mold or moisture which could affect it and it has a long life-span and its eco-friendly. These three ways of insulating are all good for the cold and for living in canada surviving the brutal winter and some of the environmental concerns of having a high R value is that it could cause health problems with that much warm hair being trapped and many other things. Instead of installing insulations you mentioned about those new houses and how the window is faced towards the sun and the reflects into the walls which are painted into dark colors so that it can absorb the sun’s energy and heat up a house and that replace insulation. In conclusion insulation can be done in many forms and ways using a variety of materials and the best way to do insulations is by spray foam. And I also got the opportunity to meet someone who specializes in wall insulation and insulators in general. My dad’s friend who is a carpenter and a walla insulator educated me on walls insulations and through me oe to do and explained in detail about the materials everything. It was a great experience doing this hands on and getting to know more about this and what’s really behind these walls in my house.