Awareness on First Aid on Common Injuries by the MAPEH Major Students In University of Rizal System ACADEMIC YEAR 2011- 2012 An Undergraduate Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of School of Education University of Rizal System Pililla, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in MAPEH Mikko N. Buenaventura John Dave A. Melo Jelner M. Reyes Arcel B. Flores Chapter 1 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Injuries are part of a game, but sometimes we can avoid them by practicing our techniques. (Troy Vincent). 1 First aid, it is a care given in an emergency situation before any medical help arrives. Most of the time, simple techniques could determine the out come of life or death situation. Every year over 250, 000 people get into fatal road accidents. Depending the area you live, emergency services might take from ten to thirty minutes arrived. The time it takes for emergency services to arrive might be fatal for those who are involved in collisions.
In these cases, the first person who is present at the scene of accident would be another road user. Again depending on the time and the region, you may be lucky to found by another user within the few seconds of accident. As a fellow driver, if that person has a good understanding of first aid techniques then it is very likely that your life would be saved. One of the ways how we could deal with it is by giving first aid training to our youngster at school. This way they would get to learn more techniques at an early age and start practicing as well.
For some of us it may be too late to go back to school just to learn some first aid techniques. In those cases, we could obtain some training for the outside organizations. There are many organizations around the country and globe that offer trainings. If you are concerned about the time that you may have to spent on these trainings then do not worry, because it does not take too long for you to learn some important basic techniques, such us the ones you use in case of road accidents. 2 An injury is a damage to your body.
It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, falls, blows, burns, weapons, and more. In U. S. A millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries ranged from minor to life threatening. Injuries can happen at work or play, indoors and outdoors, driving a car or walking across the street. 3 Physical education classes are needed because of the more sedentary lifestyle of many children, but physical education teachers and the students need to be aware of potential injuries in physical education class.
In fact the incidence of injury has been rising by 150% in 10 years (1997 to 2007). This statistic was gathered by the “Center for Injury Research and Policy of the Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital”. In order to identify the frequency of injuries, researchers examined the types of injuries that occurred most often during P. E class and the ages of the children involved. The study’s findings were published in the most recent online issue of the journal Pediatrics.
The injuries overall are: 23%- leg, knee and foot sprains and strains (lower extremity) 14%- fingers, wrists, arms, elbows and shoulder sprains and strains (upper extremity) 14%- fractures, while children from 5 to 10 years old had twice the change of having a head injury over any other, children from 11 to 14 years were the largest group represented, making up 52% of the injury numbers. While any physical activity may cause an injury, the most common ones, making up 70% of the injuries during P. E were: basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, running and volleyball.
Interestingly, there was no difference between boys and girls in terms of the increase in injuries; both groups were equally affected. Researchers point out that the goal such as studies is to make administrators and teachers aware of what injuries have the higher risk of causing injury, giving them an opportunity to be more vigilant and take safety precautions. 4 Any damage to your body is an injury. Injuries can be caused by accidents or acts of violence’s, and may occur at home, work, or play. They can be due to impact from blunt objects or from objects that penetrate the body.
Common types of injury include abrasions, lacerations, haematomas, broken bones, joints dislocation, sprains, strains and burns. Injuries can be minor or severe. Minor injuries can often be managed with basic first aid techniques, while major injuries may require medical intervention or evaluation in an emergency setting. In some case, a seemingly minor injury may in fact be a major injury requiring more urgent medical attentions. Many injuries can be prevented through use of safety devices, such as infant car seats, helmets, goggles, seatbelts and child resistant containers.
Risk of injuries can be minimized by the following commonsense safety precautions, such as avoiding contact with very hot surfaces and using caution during outdoor activities like hiking or boating diagnosis and treatment of injury has improved overtime, so that once fatal injuries are now much more likely to be survivable. Even so, significant injuries can have long- lasting complications that can require ongoing care. In the United States, accidental injuries are the leading cause of death in those between ages 1 and 44 years. Treatment of injury depends upon the type and severity.
In the event of a severe injury, calling 911 and use of basic life support measures can save a life. It is also important to prevent any further injury, which may involve stabilization of the spine, splinting injuries, and reducing ongoing blood loss as much as possible. Serious injury can lead to permanent disability and may be life threatening. Seek immediate medical care (call 911). If you, or someone you are with, have symptoms such as heavy bleeding, visible deformity, broken bones, large burns, injury to the head with confusion or loss consciousness, severe pain rapid or absent heartbeat, weak ulse, blood in vomit or stool, difficulty breathing, pale or blue lips, chest pain or pressure, seizure, change in level of consciousness or metal status injury to back or neck, or if you have any other reason to be concerned that the injury might be life threatening. Injury symptoms vary depending on the type and severity of the injury itself. Injuries range from minor cuts, bruises and shapes to large, open wounds, sever burns, and blunt force resulting in unconsciousness. Anything that can damage the body can cause an injury.
Injuries can be accidental or intentional, as in the case of act of violence, and can be caused by blunt or sharp objects, impact of high speed, falls, animal or insect bites, fire or extreme heat, and exposures to chemical and toxins. You can prevent or reduce the risk of many injuries by following basic safety precautions. Treatment of injury depends upon its type and severity. Some injuries can be treated with basic first aid techniques such as wounds cleansing, application of antibiotic ointments or liquids, wounds dressing, rest, application of rice, compressions and elevation.
More severe injuries may require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other resuscitation procedures, stitches or surgery. 5 The purpose of this study is to determine if the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System are aware on first aid on common injuries in Physical Education Class. One quarter of all injuries in children of school age occur at school. The prevention of these injuries presupposes some kind of reporting system. In this study the reliability of routine reporting of injuries at school was analyzed. Only those injuries requiring treatment by a physician were included.
All studies of injuries at school indexed in MEDLARS since 1970 were reviewed. 6 (Suen Bremberg) “This literature is related to this study, it says that injuries occur in school. Students spend most of their time in school they are having injuries because of the different activities they are doing in school especially in their Physical Education class that’s why they have to be informed about first aid in their respective school even by the teacher or trained First Aider” First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury.
It is usually performed by non- expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self- limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. This literature is related to this study, it says that first aid is not for experts only but also by non- expert but trained personnel it means students can perform First Aid if they are guided by trained person to be like them. Injuries in the school environment are a serious public health problem. Injuries occurring within the school class are a part of this problem that has received little to no attention. 8 This literature is related to this study because this is the aim of this study to determine if the students are aware in giving first aid if they are injured and to pay attention in this problem.
A look at nursery school first aid chart creates interest in children’s proneness to accident and injuries as traits. Such as concepts infers suspicion toward the “accidental’ nature of a very large proportion of children’s injuries. 9 This literature is related to this study if the students must be informed by knowledgeable person the children must be guided be adult to lessen the proneness to injuries. First aid immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
The avoidance of unnecessary movement ad over- excitation of the victim often prevents further injuries. The essentials of first aid treatment also include the correct bandaging. 10 This literature is related to this study it explains the importance of First Aid that can trigger students to be aware of it in order to save life in just giving first aid treatment. Of 105 eyes with ocular injuries involving retained intraocular foreign bodies, 63 (60%) had a final visual activity of 20/40 or better; 20 (10%) were 20/50 to 5/200: and 15(14%) were worse than 5/200. ix eyes (6%) were enucleated. The extent of visual recovery was limited in selected cases by the characteristics of the initial injury. 11 In November 1996, we made an investigation among 1194 students from 25 of grade 2 class at 4 middle schools in our city. The result shows that a total of 13 different kinds of injuries happened to the students, with a rate of 81%. Among which, 7 kinds of injuries took the first 7 places: injuries from falls (39. 78%) knife cutting. We also made an investigation on the causes and characteristic and related factor of injuries. 2 Medical injuries are recognizing as a major hazard in the health care system, little is known about their impact to asses’ excess length of stay, charges, and deaths attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. Some injuries incurred during hospitalization pose a significant threat to patients and cost to society, but the impact of such injury is highly variable. 13 A nationwide study of patient hospitalization for ocular injuries was conducted in Israel during the years 1981 through 1983, with the participation of 17 ophthalmic departments.
The study comprised 2276 patients (2416 eyes), 47% of whom were children. Bilateral injuries occurred in 140 patients, with children sustaining the most sever injuries. Ocular injuries occurred most frequently at home and children at play were most vulnerable. 14 Despite the enormous burden of school- related injuries, the direct connection between college drinking and physical injury has not been well understood. The goal of this study is to assess the connection between alcohol consumption levels and college alcohol- related injury risk. 5 Most local injury control programs address injury problems identified by national data, which do not always identify specific local injury problems. Injury problems and trends vary greatly between communities; therefore, specific information is needed to characterize community problems and to target injury control measures. Local injury surveillance data are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various state and local injury control measure. 16 Muscle injuries represent a major part of sports injuries and are a challenging problem in traumatology.
Strain injuries re the most common muscle injuries after contusions. These injuries can lead to significant pain and disability causing time to be lost training and competition. Despite the frequency of strain injuries the treatment available is limited and is generally not sufficient to enhance muscle generation efficiently when fast resumption of sports activity is a primary target. 17 Although injuries are the number one cause of death for women under age 45 years in the United States, very little is known about non fatal injuries to women, particularly those from urban, black communities.
The Philadelphia injury Prevention Program is a surveillance system of fatal and non fatal injuries in a poor, urban, black community in western Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 18 This paper provides a review of emergency room (ER) studies on alcohol and injury, using representative sample of adult injury patients, and focuses on the scope and burden of the problem as measured by estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of the ER visit, self- report drinking prior to injury. 19 Childhood agricultural injuries have been a concern in the United States for many years.
Many researchers have been performed on the cause and prevention of such injuries. Data are lacking concerning the common agricultural tasks and injuries of working on Mexican farms. 20 A survey of the literature confirms that most injuries of this kind can be treated conservatively, and in many cases, without surgical intervention. However, careful assessment by an experienced clinician is to rule out other complication. Paper discusses the prevalence, management and complications associated with impalement injuries of the oral cavity in children. 1 The elbow joint tolerates trauma poorly and even radio logically minor injuries can be followed by major disability. Fracture of the head is the commonest elbow injury, accounting for 37% of this injury at the Royal Victoria Hospital in the period under review. 22 Impalement injuries of the soft palate and oropharynx are common in children, especially those of preschool age. These injuries are particularly common in toddlers given their propensity to fall easily while carrying objects in their mouths. Although most of assessment of the patient during the early ages of trauma is imperative.
Some can have devastating neurological complications and consequently. 23 First aid is an immediate help provided to a sick or injured person until professional help arrives. It is concerned not only with physical injury or illness but also with other initial care which includes psychosocial support for people suffering emotional distress caused by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. A first aider is a lay person trained and certified in first aid who is able to use this knowledge and skills to protect and save lives.
First aid education is an approved program for providing knowledge and skills in procedure and techniques that require little or no equipment and can be taught to the general public. This program has defined outcomes and is provided by qualified trainers or facilitations. 24 This study is related in this literature it says that there is education for first aid so the students can be able to be a trained first aider o they can prolong life of others. The National First Aid Science Advisory Board defined first aid as assessment and interventions that can be performed by a ystander with minimal or no medical equipment. The Board defined a first aid provider as someone with formal training in first aid, emergency care, or medicine who provider first aid. They believe that education in first aid should be universal everyone can and should learn first aid. 25 This is related to the study in terms of education in first should be learned by everyone so student must learn first aid and be aware of it. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of awareness on first aid on common injuries by the MAPEH Major students in University of Rizal System.
It is very important that students are aware not only to common injuries but also its first aid treatment before getting into different set of physical activities for them to help themselves if they got injured or others will might be needing their help they know what to do because these injuries might get into a serious condition. This study will help MAPEH Major Students to know the level of their awareness and to know what aspects they have to emphasize and to pay more attention to improve or to develop their skills and abilities in giving first aid treatment not only in school but also outside of the school or even at home.
Theoretical Framework This study was anchored on Psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Theory which he proposed that children learn through interactions with their surrounding culture. This theory known as the socio- cultural perspective, states that the cognitive development of children and adolescents is enhanced when they work in their Zone of Proximal Development. To reach the ZDP children need help pf adults or more competent individuals to support or scaffold them as they are learning new things. 6 This theory explains that children can do more with the help and guidance of an adult or other person more experienced person than they can do by themselves. The Zone of Proximal Development defines skills and abilities that are in the process of developing. The ZDP is the range of tasks that one cannot yet perform independently but can accomplish with the help of a more competent individual. For example a child might not be able to walk across a balance beam on her own but she can do so while holding her mother’s hand.
Since children are always learning new things the ZDP changes as new skills are acquired. The relevance of this theory in this study is like in scaffolding theory where in the child will learn and do a task with the support and guidance of more experienced person for them to be able to have enough knowledge to do a task even without the assistance of more knowledgeable person. This is the same in learning first aid for common injuries in a Physical Education class.
The students be guided from more knowledgeable person on first aid for them to be aware and have enough knowledge for them to do first aid incase of emergency when someone in their class have been injured even just by themselves. Conceptual Framework INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure1: Conceptual Model of the Study Figure 1 presents the conceptual model of the study about the awareness on first aid on common injuries by the MAPEH major students of University of Rizal System. The first frame indicates the input into the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, year level and campus.
It also indicates the evaluation on the awareness on first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students with respect to muscle cramps, neck strain and pain, sprained twisted ankle, foot arch pain and strain, nosebleed, haematomas, fracture, dislocation, fainting, wounds and Achilles tendonitis injury. The second frame contains the process in which the test questionnaire will be the main instrument in order to determine the awareness on First Aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System SY 2011- 2012.
The third frame presents the output of the outcome of the study which was the awareness on first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System AY 2011- 2012. The arrows represent the feedback connecting the output leading to the input where it reveals that whatever the findings maybe they will lead to the input and if the main objectives will not be achieved there can still be continuous process to connect until it reaches the aims to achieve. Statements of the Problem This study aims to determine the awareness on the first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System.
This study answers the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, year level and campus? 2. What are the common injuries and its first aid? 3. What is the level of awareness on first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students? 4. Is there any significant difference on the level of awareness on first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System with the respect to musculo- skeletal injuries, respiratory cases, heat related injuries, neuro- psychological cases, and soft tissue injuries in terms of age, sex, civil status, year level and campus?
Hypothesis There is no significant difference on the awareness on First aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System SY 2011- 2012 with respect to age, sex, civil status, tear level and campus. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study focused on the awareness on first aid on common injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System SY 2011- 2012. The subjects of this study were the 100% of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System.
This study was limited into the common injuries on physical education classes and its first aid treatment with respect to muscle cramps, neck strain and pain, sprained twisted ankle, foot arch pain and strain, nosebleed, haematomas, fractures, dislocation, fainting, wounds, Achilles tendonitis injury. This is also limited to the profile of MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System in terms of age, sex, civil status, year level and campus. Definition of Terms The terms used in this study was conceptually defined. Abrasion.
It is the wound caused by superficial damage to the skin no deeper than the epidermis. It is less severe than laceration. Bandaging. It is the buddy wrapping or taping a damage finger or toe together. The bandage is usually stiff not allowing the splint to move. Contusions. It is an injury to tissues without breakage of skin, a bruise. In a contusion blood from the broken vessels accumulates in surrounding tissues producing pain. Cramps. It occurs when a muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts. Dehydration and overuse are the most common causes of muscle cramping.
Dislocation. It is a separation of a bone from its normal position at a joint. Dislocation is usually caused by strong forces. Some joints such as the shoulder or fingers dislocate relatively easily because their bones and ligaments. Provide less protection. Fainting. It is a sudden loss of consciousness from a lack of blood flow to the brain. Victims usually wake up quickly after collapsing. First Aid. It is an emergency treatment administered to an injured or sick person before professional medical care is available. Fracture. It is a break, chip of crack in a bone.
Fractures are usually caused by direct or indirect forces. Strong Twisting forces and muscle contraction can also cause a fracture. Haematomas. It occurs when direct forces causes a muscle to bleed. This can be by fall or other accident and may accompany another injury like a strain or sprain. Injury. It is any damage. Nosebleed. It is also called epistaxis is a loss of blood from any blood vessel in the nose. It usually appears in only one nostril. Sprain. It is similar to strain but involves ligaments rather than full muscle or tendons.
The ligaments are muscular bands that hold two bones together which can become sprained or overly stretch from stress being applied to a joint. Strain. It is sometimes referred to as a pulled muscle a muscle strain occurs when a muscle on the connective tissue that attaches it to a bone called a tendon is overly stretched or torn. Wound. It is a break in any body tissue due to external action. It may be close or open wound. Minor wounds need only first aid. Notes 1www. brainyqoute. com/qoutes/keywords/injuries. html/23- 07- 11 2firstaid. goy. com/first aid awareness/23- 07- 11 3www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/injuries. html/23- 07- 11 4blistree. com/feel/physical education- injuries/23- 07-11 5www. better medicine. com/article/injury/24- 07- 11 6www. sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/000145758990857/24- 07- 11 7en. wikipedia. org/wiki/First_aid/24- 07- 11 8www. pedriatriesdigest. mobi/content/106/1/10. short/24- 07- 11 9onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10-111/j. 1939- 0025. 1948. tb/24- 07- 11 10 www. infoplease. com/ce6/sci/A0818750- html/24- 07- 11 11www. ncbi. hlm. nih. ov/pubmed/3262852/24- 07- 11 12en. cnki. com/article_ en/ CJFD TOTAL- 2HLX1973006. HTM/24- 04- 11 13jama-ama-assn. org/content/290/14/1868. short/24- 07- 11 14archopt. ama. assn. org/cyi/content/abstract/106/6/776/24- 07- 11 15www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/punc/articles/PMC2757258/24- 07- 11 16www. sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/002243758790082x/24- 07- 11 17https://www. thieme_content. com/ejournals/abstract/sportsmed/doi/10. 0055/5-2004-821304 18aje. oxfordjournals. org/content/134/1/59. short/24- 07- 11 19informhealthcare. com/doi/abs/10. 080/09595230601146686/24- 07- 11 20http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pumed/21728873/24- 07- 11 21online library. wiley. com/doi/10-1111/J. 1365-263x_2006. 00765x/full/24- 07- 11 22www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2384652)? Page= 1/24- 07- 11 23onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/JB65-263x. 2006. 00765. x/full/24- 07- 11 24www. ifrc. org/global/governance/policies/firstaid- policy- en. pdf/24- 07- 11 25circ. ahajournals. org/content 11/22- 50ppl/III- 115. full/24- 07- 11 26www. ehow. com/facts_5589381_vygotsky_s- scaffoding_html/21- 07- 11 ———————- I. Profile of the Respondents • Age • Sex • Civil Status • Year Level • Campus II. Evaluation of the Awareness on First Aid by the MAPEH Major Students with Respect to: • Musculo- Skeletal Injuries • Respiratory Cases • Heat Related Injuries • Neuro-Psychological Cases • Soft Tissue Injuries Assessment through • Questionnaire- checklist • Computation • Tabulation • Analysis • Interpretation • Presentation Assessed Awareness on First Aid on Common Injuries of the MAPEH Major Students in University of Rizal System FEEDBACK