Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be defined by thefederal explanation in united state authorized cod, Individual with DisabilityEducation Act follow as,A child is classified as having ASD when thedevelopmental disability significantly affect the teenager verbal andnon-verbal communication or social interaction before age three that is generally evident and it special effects the teenagereducational performance this is a neurological illness that affect brainchemistry and physical brain also severely incapacitating lifelongdevelopmental disability the disease manifested by few or many symptoms andeffects the variety of bodily functions even two children’s can bediagnosed with the same form of autismand their physiological abilities are different people living with ASD overlapwith other disorders and will display characteristics of ASD a person with ASDcan appear if they are in there own worldAnd have a unique set of physical, sensory, andmentally impaired social situations are different in some cases ‘and a childrensometime can speak and some time they cannot speak with ASD as one of many withor without meaning and delayed speech, repetitive movements and hyperactivityin ASD population unusual reacting to sensory stimulation through touch, taste,hearing, smell and site person with ASD may be unbelievably excellent at otherskills and one the one child with ASD might be show cognitive impairment andsevere physical impairments on the other way the other might be having goodskills at English, math , art, scienceand memory but can be lacking in their social skills also the face inability tocontrol emotions , reactions , and behaviors ‘they could show a flat facial expressions and appearing to be emotionless also theymay be more sensitive . Onset and Population of ASD ASD usually appear atthe very early age usually it is nearby at the age one the beginning, or point in time in which thedisorder is predictable Symptoms can be prominent from a number of months oldto age three person with ASD might be of any compete social, culture oreconomic group males are diagnosed then females and both sexes are affected andmaybe he or she undergo in combinationwith other situation such as: deafness, Attention Deficit Disorder, DownSyndrome, cognitive disabilities, blindness, Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy, etc theexperts says there are no two children with autism that are the same. Common Myths about Autism Myth: Myth: poor eye contact by people who are faced ASD Fact: they express their personality in a different way more or lessthan a typical child’s Myth: people with ASD have a preference to be lonely Fact: other way they may be interrelate with others but they not havesocial abilities to do so efficiently Myth: they do not have feelings and care about others Fact: They progression their mind-set in a different and or tricky wayand People with ASD do in fact have emotional feelings but they do not have theability to unexpectedly attach and build up a connection. History of Autism – Introducing the Pioneers The word ‘AUTISM’ comes from Greek word’autos’ meaning ‘self’ Theinitial known documented case of ASD was in the court case of Hugh Blair ofBrogue.
In 1747, Blair’s younger brother appeared in court for a result onHugh’s mental capacity to agreement a marriage He profitably petition theannulment of his marriage so that he can gain his brothers legacy (Autism inHistory…88). Hugh’s disagreement was that his brother was mentally not fixedthere was no evidence that Hugh had autism but nearby was clear proof that heshowed personality of ASD.
A Swiss psychiatrist, named Eugen Bleuler, firstused the word in 1911. He described the symptoms of intellectual illness into acategory. The word was then puzzled with emotional troubles and schizophreniauntil 1943. at some stage in 1940s, the two pioneers Leo Kanner and HansAsperger described children with the characteristics we recognize today asbeing faced ASD . ASD became “autism” in 1943 when John Hopkins Universitypsychiatric consultant Leo Kanner recognized it as a distinctive neurologicalsituation lacking an explicit reason. At that point Kanner invented a latest pinpointingclass called “Early Infantile Autism”, sometimes referred to as theKanner Syndrome. In 1944, Hans Asperger, an Austrian Pediatrician in Vienna, inprint a 5 doctoral opinion and described patients also use the term “autistic.”He and Kanner both described comparable characteristics of impairedcommunication and societal communication.
Even though both doctors described abroad range of symptoms, it was Kanner’s description that became the mostwidely recognized. The term “Asperger’s disease” became universal when it wasmade public in 1981, as a situation in the past described by Hans Asperger. The Autism Spectrum Disorders ASD features a collection of diagnoses that are measured clinicallyseparate from another, however are many times grouped together for learningpurposes, as their characteristics often times overlap. These disorders arelisted and expanded below: 1. Autism 2.
Asperger’ssyndrome and High Functioning Autism (HFA) 3. PervasiveDevelopmental Disorders (PDD) 4. PervasiveDevelopmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) 5. AtypicalAutism Autism Autistic Disorder is a social situation impairment noted by a failureto exchange nonverbal behaviors such as, facial expression body posture eyecontact, and gestures.
The beginning is prior to three years old. The symptomsof ASD usually it can be observed by 18 months of age. Some may have a delay inone or more areas of development, while many other autistic individuals may bemore typical of other ASDs. 7 The main signs and symptoms of autism involveproblems in the following areas: social communication interaction, reasoningand age appropriate play, these impairments are evidenced by be deficient in ofappropriate exchange and understanding of, verbal, emotional, or body language.People with ASD have issues in developing age appropriate activities andrelationships.
There Routine behaviorsare present since they may repeat trial or words in an obsessive method.Examples include muted others’ sounds, finger/hand flapping, twisting, andsudden or slow complex whole-body movements. Dangerous or fantasy playinappropriate to developmental level may be displayed. An autistic child may bepersistently preoccupied with certain objects such as a hot coffee cup orpoisonous chemicals.
This person has a level of impaired development ofcommunication and may or may not present an attempt to use further forms of expressingthemselves to allocate thoughts of pain, illness, joy, or sadness. Someindividuals may present adequate speech at normal or odd moment, and may or maynot have the ability to talk with others. Asperger’s Syndrome and High Functioning Autism (HFA) These conditions are considered by a lot of scholars and fitness careprofessionals to have overlapping signs and symptoms of every other. Thebehaviors might include further or less common aspects of each other.Asperger’s disease is the impaired skill to exploit communal cues such as bodylanguage, theoretical way of thinking, suitable eyeball contact, andsocialization skills.
They tend to have odd behaviors such as being extremelysensitive in responding to stimuli, also exhibit unusual or repetitivemovements. They are able to seen as autistic people who talk well. Expertsargue that although verbal speech is intact, other 8 communication problems mayexist.
Asperger’s can use verbal communication whereas autism usually haslimited or no speech. A person with Asperger’s is also described as one whoshows no interest in developing human bonds. The degree, to which Asperger’skids actually are aware of their trouble making bonds with others, is oftenmisunderstood. Asperger’s and Autism together share the issue of recognizingthe extinction and intentions of others. Children with Asperger’s disease,generally have a typical to complex intellect stage. They may exhibit asatisfactory thoughtful of vocabulary and grammar subjects with a decrease capabilityto focus and or understand humor. Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) The term Pervasive DevelopmentalDisorders is a diagnostic category used to describe many neurological disordersthat engage impaired social skills and repetitive behaviors.
They take inAutism, Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder not OtherwiseSpecified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)*, and Rett’sSyndrome*. (Rett’s Syndrome and CDD will not be included as they differ andhave a more progressive course where loss of skills and abilities occur overtime.) The PDDs are characterized by their developmental delays in functionaland communication skills. Traditionally children with autism were said to havea PDD, implying that a child demonstrates disorganized development.
They arepervasive, meaning the disease affects many areas. Learning ability is affectedbut may improve to other levels. The condition is something that happenedduring early development, and not from an accident or injury. They are medicaldisorders that are not caused by parenting errors, 9 toxins, poor care, etc.Some cases may be genetic. There is a wide spectrum of impairments associatedwith PDD and ASD, which can range from mild to severe. One cannot outgrow PDDand to date there is no cure.
The condition is expected to be present for theentire life span. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) andAtypical AutismThe characteristics of PDD-NOS are presented as they have overlappingsymptoms with Atypical Autism. Atypical Autism is the primary diagnosis givento children who have some form of autistic symptoms but do not have all of theparticular traits to form a diagnosis of autism. These types of cases, mainlythe milder forms, are usually discovered later in life than prior to age three,as general autism. People who are closely related to the affected individualshave a higher than expected incidence of these disorders. The cause maypossibly have a genetic basis, but there are no facts to support that notion.The symptoms and severity of Atypical Autism can vary from person to person.Some traits of people with Atypical Autism may be that they have a difficultywith language skills, whereas they display limited or no verbal ability andpossess a smaller vocabulary than other children in the same agegroup.
Individuals with PDD-NOS usually experience an area of impairment however10 their overall living skills are more advanced than people with autism. Theyoften do not know how to react in an appropriate manner to other people’semotions. People with this disorder often have difficulty understandingnon-verbal cues or language that is not meant to be taken literally. Thesefactors often lead to uncomfortable social interactions, therefore re-enforcingthe tendency of people with atypical autism to prefer solitude.
Treatment There is no single best treatment for all children with ASDs, becauseno two individuals are alike. What may work for one may not work for another. Awell structured treatment plan designed to teach specific skills is ideal andvery important. Before a family chooses a treatment regime, it is important totalk with the child’s health care team to understand all the risks and benefitsthat are involved. Routine medical, dental, physical, and mental exams shouldbe a part of the treatment plan. It may be hard to tell if a child’s behavioris related to an ASD or caused by another underlying condition.
For example, ahead banging child could have an ASD, or they could simply just be havingheadaches. In some cases a thorough physical exam is needed. Many differenttypes of treatment options exist such as auditory training, discrete trialtraining, vitamin therapy, anti-yeast or anti-allergy therapy, music therapy,occupational therapy, physical therapy, and sensory integration. The differenttypes of treatments fall into the following four categories: Complementary andAlternative, Medicine, Behavior and Communication Approaches, DietaryApproaches, and Medication.
Causes and Cures Parents should be reassured thatat the present time, there is no scientific evidence to support claims that MMRvaccine or any combination of vaccines cause ASD. No one really knows whatcauses autism. Autism is not caused by one’s income, parent’s educationallevel, race, ethnic, or social background. Autism can be present in any newborn, any where in the entire world.
Some use to think that autism had a directconnection with people who were poor. This is not the case because there aremany people that are wealthy that have conceived children with autism. Badparenting was even considered as a cause, at one point in time, in the earlyyears of the disorder. We do know that according to the Centers for DiseaseControl, the incidence rate for autism spectrum disorders is now as high as 1in 110, including 1 in 70 boys.
It is now known to be a heterogeneous disorder,with milder forms being more common than the classic form. Autism is thefastest growing developmental disorder in the U.S., representing a 600 percentincrease in the past 20 years. No one can explain why the disorder is growingso rapidly. Suspecting ASD and Seeking Support Immediately (SASSI)An initial suspicion of any ASD means that you should seek professionalmedical attention immediately. Many options are available to help familiesprovide the best treatments available.
Supportive services and testingprocedures will help families cope with fears and issues. A good acronym toremember is SASSI. Seek Support ServicesAny child with a suspected delay or symptoms of ASD should be given theopportunity to enroll in an age-appropriate early intervention programimmediately, even before a definitive diagnosis is available. (PediatricNeurology 39.
1 (2008)) Children are entitled to many federally mandatedprograms and services for children with developmental delays or deviations.Although criteria may vary slightly among states, eligibility for theseprograms is based on the presence of a delay, not on a categorical diagnosis. Conduct Lead ScreeningIn some cases a child may show developmental delays and behavioralproblems that can be a sign of lead poisoning. Children at young ages have atendency to put many objects in their mouth. These objects could be from a widerange of household items such as crayon, toys, or even tools.
With the range ofrisks involved, lead screenings are performed routinely when a child showssigns of a developmental delay or disorder. If elevated lead levels suspected,refer the child to a local emergency center. Perform Formal Auditory AssessmentsIn some cases, a child that may appear to have a developmental delaycould actually be hearing impaired. There is a strong relationship between thechild’s hearing, and his communication ability. If a child’s hearing impairmentgoes undiagnosed, he may experience delays in development and communicationissues. A child with a communication or developmental disorder may also haverelated issues with sensitivity to sound.
If a physician is concerned after thescreening there should be additional testing done. One the previous issues areruled out, it may be necessary to seek additional help from an ASD specialist. Conduct Autism Screening If the developmental screening raises concern it is highly recommendedthat parents follows up with an autism screening and diagnosis specialist, (DaCapo Press, 2009).
Most autism screening tools are designed to detect autismspectrum disorders, concentrating on social and communication impairments inchildren and focusing on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) criteria for autism.Some professionals use the 17 International Classification of Disease (ICD-10),which is a diagnostic manual developed by the World Health Organization.Although all autism screening tools have limitations, most notably by the lackof well-validated screening tools available for children 18 months of age andyounger. It is vital that your child receive the proper screenings necessary todetermine that he or she has autism. Solutions for Cognitive ProblemsTeachers can visually deliver instruction in thefollowing ways: Use color.
Color-coded notebooks or colored markers and pens can help students differentiate subjects. Color can also be used to highlight directions. Use multisensory delivery. Dramatic presentations, comics, PowerPoint presentations, overheads, movies, and online resources involve both auditory and visual processing. And photos.
Alphabet and number lines or mnemonic devices also provide visual cues for students. Bulletin boards, banners, posters, and flashcards reinforce content area knowledge. Use notes or other handouts to help students stay focused during verbal instruction. Use visual cues.
Schedules, calendars, timetables, and lists of items to complete can be placed on students’ desks. These can take a variety of forms: written, pictures or symbols,When information must be presented verbally,teachers can support students with ASD when they: Demonstrate/model/act out instructions; use hand signals Put instructions in the same place always. Complete the first examples with students. Repeat instructions after allowing 10 seconds for processing time; speak slowly and clearly, modify tone and pace. Provide extra time and resources. Simplify; analyze tasks and break them into small steps Involve students in presentations.
Teams teach.Students with ASD might also need a variety ofadapted materials, including: desk organizers AAC(augmentative and alternative communication) devices and voice output devices, talking calculators, educational software designed for struggling learners or children with ASD, manipulative, different types of paper – textured, graph, lined papers (raised lines, colored lines and mid-lines), low-vocabulary books, audio and video tapes, sticky notes, a variety of writing utensils: golf pencils, magic markers, highlighters, chalk holders, pencil grips, and stamps and stamp pads, slant writing boards, recipe stands,Many students with ASD are not “fond” of writing,whether they are engaged in the mechanical process itself or the slow processof translating oral language into the written word. Because so much of thecurriculum output expected from students includes written work, it is imperativeto have alternatives for students with ASD to demonstrate their knowledge ofwhat has been presented in a lesson.The following are some alternative ideas forstudents with ASD to demonstrate their knowledge: dioramas dramatic presentations oral tests PowerPoint presentations graphs and diagrams comic strips storyboards flow charts sign languageSolutions for social problemsIn some cases, parentscan minimize unpleasant sensory stimulation. For example, parents can avoidcertain clothing fabrics that their child finds intolerable. Others may buysecondhand clothing, or wash new items repeatedly, to minimize the unpleasant rubof new fabrics. It can be very difficult for parents to find these causes ofdistress especially when the child is very young or does not communicate well.There may be some detective work and experimenting needed to find the sources.
Where are source ofdistress cannot be realistically avoided, there are behavioral techniques toallow a child to gradually accept the unpleasant sensory sensation. With timeand patience, Desensitization canbe a powerful technique. For example, a child may scream uncontrollably insupermarkets. The parent will explain to the child that they will stand outsidethe supermarket for 30 seconds then go home. The next time, it may be explainedthat they will go in for 30 seconds then go home. Time spent in the supermarketis gradually lengthened until the child has adapted to this environment.
Formore information, see the Behavior Management Strategies factsheet. There are otherinterventions available that help autistic children to integrate their sensesand have more pleasurable interactions with people and their environment. Seethe Sensory Integration Therapies factsheet for treatment options. Temple Grandin’s ‘hug machine’ isan interesting option for some children with sensory problems. Solutions forBehavioral problems Applied BehaviorAnalysis (ABA)This treatment is basedon the theory that behavior rewarded is more likely to be repeated thanbehavior ignored.
It focuses on giving the child short simple tasks that arerewarded when successfully completed. Children usually work for 30 to 40 hoursa week one-on-one with a trained professional. Some practitioners feel thismethod is too emotionally draining and demanding for a child with autism.Yet, years of practice has shown that ABA techniques result in new skills andimproved behaviors in some children with autism.
TEACCH (Treatment andEducation of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children)This is a structuredteaching approach based on the idea that the environment should be adapted tothe child with autism, not the child to the environment. Teaching strategiesare designed to improve communication, social, and coping skills. Like ABA,TEACCH also requires intensive one-on-one training. Solutions for socialproblemsChildren with Autism havepersistent problems and difficulties with social interactions andcommunication.
They may not properly understand the social rules and etiquetteswhich makes socializing difficult for them.Their abilities arecompletely different than those of their fellow peers . This in turn makes themconscious and secluded which as a results put autistic children at a muchhigher risk of being bullied by other children at school.Children with Autismlearn differently than other kids. They need more attention and a distinctiveteaching approach. These children could suffer due to ineffective teachingmethods. As educators, teachers have a responsibility to ensure that thequality of education their students receive is customized to their learningcapabilities.
The best way to help an autistic child learn to their bestpotential is to understand what problems they face at school. Recommendations for disabled studentsAutism is characterized as a unique set of neurological disorders thataffects the individual’s communication abilities, reasoning, learning, andphysiological response. Children with autism demonstrate behaviors and skillsthat can range from mild abnormalities to severe developmental challenges.
Although clinical patterns vary depending on severity, all children with ASDslack the normal ability to fully engage in mutual social interaction,communication, movements, behaviors, interests, and activities. One has toremember there are no two people with autism that are alike. Interventions mustbe individualized and catered to accordingly, the person’s specific autismtraits. Although autism may not be curable, it is manageable through treatment,support systems, resources, and awareness. Sharing knowledge and awarenessprevents discrimination, neglect, and dispels myths. It is vital for parents,employers, the general public, and counselors to know the significance of theautism spectrum so that society can be aware of the warning signs,interventions, and breakthrough technologies that allow the person earlytreatment.
Most importantly, if we do not act to detect the early developmentalabnormalities, we will 39 delay the individualized care to the autistic population,and ultimately decrease their quality of life.