A&P Ii Anatomy of the Respiratory System

NAME LAB TIME/DATE R E V I E W S H E E T E X E R C I S E Print Form 36 Anatomy of the Respiratory System Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures 1. Complete the labeling of the diagram of the upper respiratory structures (sagittal section). Frontal sinus Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Superior nasal chonchea middle inferior external nares Hard palate epiglottis Tongue Lingual tonsil tongue Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage of larynx Cricoid cartilage Thyroid gland trachea Sphenoidal sinus Pharyngeal tonsil

Opening of auditory tube or eustachian tube or pharyngotympanic tube Nasopharynx Soft palate laryngopharynx glottis epophagus 2. Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)? Inferior vocal folds(true vocal fols) 3. Name the specific cartilages in the larynx that correspond to the following descriptions. thyroid cartilage cricoid cartilage forms the Adam’s apple: shaped like a signet ring: epiglottis a “lid” for the larynx: vocal cord attac arytenoids cartilage 243 4.

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What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings? to maintain passage way regardless to respiratory pressure change in tracheal wall. Of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly? It provide space to oseseophagus to expland anteriorly so that large bolus can be swallowed. plural membrane produce serous fluid which help in lubricating 5. What is the function of the pleural membranes? and adhering both the membrane. It helps in keep lungs in thorasic cavity and can move easily during breathing movement.

Warming, moisturing and 6. Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa. filtering the passed air from nasal cavity. and 7. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi. left main bronchusright main bronchusleft main bronchus Which is longer? Larger in diameter? More horizontal? Right main bronchus Which more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways? 8. Appropriately label all structures provided with leader lines on the diagrams below. trachea primary bronchus right lung left lung secondary bronchus TERTIARY BRONCHUS nferior lob middle inferior lobe terminal bronchiolBRANCHIOPULMONARY respiratory bronchiole bronchiole base alveoli 244Review Sheet 36 9. Trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs: External nares ? NASAL CAVITY—– PAHRYNX—TRACHEAS—PRIMARY BRONCHI— SEONDARY BRONCHUS— TERTIARY BRONCHUS ====BRONCHIOLE, PRIMARY BRANCHIOLE— ALVEOLAR DUCT——- ALVEOLAR SAC—–ALEVOLAR/ CAPILALRY WALL— PULMONARY BLOOD 10. Match the terms in column B to the descriptions in column A. Column AColumn B n 1. onnects the larynx to the primary bronchi k 2. site of tonsils e 3. food passageway posterior to the trachea d 4. covers the glottis during swallowing of food g 5. contains the vocal cords l 6. nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration p 7. pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax a 8. site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood h 9. connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx f 10. opening between the vocal folds c 11. increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity i 12. separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity a. alveolus b. ronchiole c. concha d. epiglottis e. esophagus f. glottis g. larynx h. opening of pharyngotympanic tube i. palate j. parietal pleura k. pharynx l. phrenic nerve m. primary bronchi n. trachea o. vagus nerve p. visceral pleura 11. What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space? from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles are anatomical dead space. Why? Because no gaseous exchange take place there. 12. Define the following terms. respiration/gasesous exchange in between blood and air filled lungs chamber , external respiration: aleed exteranl : gaseous exchange in between systemic blood and tissue cell internal respiration: at cellular level, cell use oxygen and remove carbon di oxide as waste product. cellular respiration: Thus involved respiration at cellular level(cellular metabolism)called cellular respiration. Review Sheet 36 245 13. Use the following labeled diagram to answer the questions below: Demonstrating Lung Inflation in a Sheep Pluck 14. Does the lung inflate part by part or as a whole, like a balloon? part by part inflation 15. What happened when the pressure was released? lastic connective tissue 16. What type of tissue ensures this phenomenon? Examining Prepared Slides of Lung and Tracheal Tissue 17. The tracheal epithelium is ciliated and has goblet cells. What is the function of each of these modifications? Cilia? Protect the nasal [pathway by filtering the air and keeping dust particle away Mucus secreting function Goblet cells? 18. The tracheal epithelium is said to be pseudostratified. Why? This is made up with more than one cell layer and give striated appearance . this help in protection from dust, bacteria etc. 19.

What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases? thin walled and large surface area Why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood?. due to diffusion of oxygen from alveoli into pulmonary capillary bloo. dbecasue of high partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in alveoli. 20. If you observed pathological lung sections, what were the responsible conditions and how did the tissue differ from normal lung tissue? (Disregard this section, you did not observe Pathological sections). Slide type Observations Student dataStudent data