Air Pollution in China
Now-a-days air pollution is a great concern in our earth. But do we know
that who is responsible for that? We are the only one who is responsible of it.
The things come to our mind when we talk about air pollution, are smog, acid rain,
and some other form of air pollutions. Air pollution is not new to the world.
It has been started from industrial revolution due to our human activities. It has been increasing day by day. The chemical components which pollute the air
have great affect in our body. The definition of air pollution is “The presence
of chemicals or compounds in the air which are usually not present, and which
lower the quality of air and cause detrimental changes to the quality of life”.
Air Quality Index (AQI) measures the air
pollution. It scales pollution levels
from 0 to 500 and indicates a color to different number levels to identify how dangerous
the air quality is on any given day. Even though every country is creating and
facing air pollution, according to the WHO, China is the greatest air polluted
country in the world. It is the main cause of death in China.
Beijing is the most polluted area in
China. There are several kinds of air pollution in Beijing. The main three air
pollutions in Beijing are acid rain, smog and greenhouse gases. The presence of
SO2 forms the acid rain. The presence of
CO2 creates greenhouse effect. The main part of air pollution in Beijing, China
is ozone gas which forms smog. According
to the article “Beijing Air Pollution” Ozone is a major component in
photochemical smog, one of the most lethal types of air pollution for people
living in Beijing. Ozone is a gas which is a compound of 3 oxygen atoms held
together(O3). Ozone can be found in earth’s stratosphere and troposphere. The stratospheric
ozone is called ozone layer which is good for us. The tropospheric ozone is
acutely being in our ground level which is bad for us. This bad ozone forms
smog when it crosses the maximum level. According to the WHO, the eight-hour
average exposure to ozone is limited at 100 micrograms per cubic meter.
Inhaling low amounts of ozone can cause headaches, dry mouth and coughing. But
when the air concentration of ozone rises above 240 micrograms per cubic meter.
However, ozone cannot emit to our world directly in the world, it is formed by
the chemical reaction of nitrogen oxides(NOx) and volatile organic compounds(VOCs)
in the presence of sunlight. Fusil fuel combustion is the main source of ozone
in our earth. To
estimate the ozone in air the VOCs data is used in Beijing. Based on MIR scale,
the leading contributors to ozone formation in Beijing are formaldehyde,
xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, acetaldehyde and propene which account for 56% of
the total ozone formation potential. Here
is the formula that produce bad ozone in troposphere:
VOC+OH —O2–> RO2+H2O
China has the world largest population
in the world. The economic growth of China is the main cause of air pollution.
The population of Beijing, China is almost 21.5 million. In
Beijing the main reasons of air pollution are over population, huge
industrialization, large amount of motor vehicles, economic boom, output form manufacturing, seasonal
weather, etc. According to the Environmental ScienceBites, every day in Beijing
1200 motor vehicles has been added and the amount of motor vehicles in Beijing
is 3.3 million which contribute to add SO2, NOx, PM10. This is caused 70% of
air pollution in Beijing. Another cause of air pollution in Beijing is coal
burning factories. It contributes to creates smog which is form of extensive
ozone in the air. In Beijing, the amount of industry has been increased every
year rapidly. But most of the industry cannot afford the high-cost substitute
which is protect air form being polluted. Previous air quality reports have shown half
of the polluted days in summer in Beijing were mainly caused by ozone. When
automobiles exhaust and emissions from industry mix together with oxygen in
presence of hot temperature the is formed.
The effect of air pollution in China is
very shock for us. According to the
World Health Organization, “China is the world’s deadliest country for outdoor
air pollution and more than one million people died in China in 2012”. Even
though the pollution in China is decreasing, still it is facing worst air
pollution. It is one of the main concern for public health. According to RAND crop. estimates, China loses
its 6.5 percent GDP annually. Another article posts that according to the
Chinese Academy of Protection
of the Environment China lost $220 billion in 2009 due to air pollution. Beijing
is one of the most effected area in China. In Beijing people are in danger day
by day due to air pollution. Most of the time you could see the dark sky in Beijing.
According to the Enviromental ScienceBites,
the life span of Beijing people is five to six years shorter than southern
cities in china. The air pollution in Beijing causes low birth rate, high
mortality rate related to respiratory diseases. The lung cancer in Beijing has
been increasing 60% in the first decade even though the smoking rate is
decreasing. In 2015 at December the Beijing city issued first red smog alert. The
schools were shut down, all the cars were taken out from the roads. The main air
pollution in Beijing is now ozone pollution which forms one kind dark smog. According
to the post in South China Morning Post, in Beijing, even though the PM 2.5 has
been decreasing, the ozone is pollution is getting worse and it is one of the
main health concern now in Beijing people. According to the Peking University
study, ozone pollution has been increased 13.3 percent from 2013 to 2016 in the
13 cities in Beijing-Tianjin Hebei area. In Beijing, Ozone pollution has both short
and long-term effect. Inhaling low amount
of ozone can cause headache, dry chough while inhaling ozone more than 240 micrograms
concertation can cause serious health problem like asthma and heart disease. It
can also worsen bronchitis, emphysema. It can harm respiratory system,
As air pollution is the main issue in Beijing, China, the government is trying
to come up with the solution to reduce the high ozone concentration, SO2, NOx,
VOCs PM2.5. According to the Daily Mail news, “China’s capital Beijing will see
a web of five ‘ventilation corridors’ built in a bid to tackle the city’s
notorious air pollution issue, announced the city’s authorities on Saturday”.
This Ventilation corridors are will decrease obstruction to wind, improve the air flow
between inner and outer city and to help with the spread of pollutants. These
five ventilation corridors will be placed in northern Beijing to south Beijing.
To get rid of air pollution the Beijing also needs to get rid of it considerable
number of motor vehicles which is the major cause of air pollution specially
for ozone pollution and acid rain. The Daily Mail news also states that the Beijing
urban Planning Committee take an action on motor vehicles. They will replace
the motor vehicles with bicycle. Furthermore, Beijing has the has huge industry
which is responsible for air pollution in Beijing. The main source of air
pollution is burning coal in industry. Beijing needs to reduce the burning coal
to keep environment safety. According to
CLIMATE & CLAEN AIR COALITION to control air pollution in Beijing, the city
applies some mitigation system such as control power plant emission, coil fired
boilers, emission control new vehicles, emission control in use vehicles, improvements
in fuel quality, transportation and traffic managements, etc.
Air pollution in China is a common
issue to the world. Every year more than 1.6 million people are dying in China
and the most popular city Beijing is mostly suffered of it. The Beijing city has
mainly affected by smog which is resulting from PM2.5 and Ozone pollution. Even
though PM2.5 is decreasing in Beijing, Ozone pollution is increasing rapidly. Due
to ozone pollution people are facing short term diseases and long-term diseases.
However, the government and so many organizations are coming forward to save
the world-famous city, Beijing. The environmental board of Beijing established
some rules and regulations to safe Beijing people. We may have to wait some
extra years to see how much effective are these.
Climate & Clean Air Coalition,
Edited by Kylienne A. Clark, Travis
R. Shaul, and Brian H. Lower. “Environmental ScienceBites.” 4.2 Causes and
Consequences of Air Pollution in Beijing, China | Environmental ScienceBites,
The Ohio State University, osu.pb.unizin.org/sciencebites/chapter/causes-and-consequences-of-air-pollution-in-beijing-china/.
Mail online, Chloe Lyme For. “Has
Beijing finally found a solution to its smog? Chinese capital plans
‘ventilation corridors’ to curb notorious air pollution.” Daily Mail Online, associated
Newspapers, 22 Feb. 2016,
“WHO.” World Health Organization,
World Health Organization, www.who.int/en/.
“Beijing Holds Its Breath as Ozone
Levels Surge.” Beijing Holds Its Breath as Ozone Levels Surge-Caixinn Global, www.caixinglobal.com/2017-05-19/101092520.html.