Internet of Things (IoT) has provided a promising opportunity to build powerful Border systems and applications by leveraging the growing ubiquity of RFID, wireless, mobile and sensor devices. A wide range of Border IoT applications have been developed and deployed in recent years. In an effort to understand the development of IoT in Border, this paper reviews the current research of IoT, key enabling technologies, major IoT applications in borders and identifies research trends and challenges. A main contribution of this review paper is that it summarizes the current state-of-the-art of IoT in borders systematically. The advancement of Automation technology, life is getting simpler and easier in all aspects. In today’s world Automatic systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life, and IoT is the latest and emerging internet technology. This paper proposes that the Border monitoring and controlling by using PIR sensor, metal detector and Raspberry pi.
Keywords: Growing ubiquity of RFID, A wide range of Border IoT, Key enabling technology,
Border areas, both on land and at sea is one of the locations prone to crime. Various attempts have been made by the government to prevent crime in the border region or who use the border crossing. Measures that have been taken by the government, among others through social-economic approach and security. From the results of the survey which has been conducted by the research team in the border area, the attempt would be more effective if the stakeholders in the border area have actual data and information about the various on the border. Availability of data and information relating to the condition of the actual border area is required by the government or relevant agencies in order to make the right decision or policy as well as the positive impact on the surrounding community. As shown in the figure below, the concept of an integrated surveillance system.
2. RELATED WORK:
The concept of this system is, some kind o data coming from different sources are collected in a data base and then be processed into various types of information. One of the problems faced by the government, particularly the agencies on issues related to security, immigration and customs are the actual limitations of the data and information relating to the condition of the border region or in the border crossing. The problem is due to the lack of availability of monitoring systems supported by modern IT technology. These constraints result from the reliance on technology and components from abroad. Resulting in the construction and operational costs are high. In this research activity has been carried out studies on the model of Integrated Border Area Surveillance System, which is in accordance with the conditions in the border region. Suitability of these conditions include the availability of infrastructure, technological mastery, ease in finding supporting components to build the system, as well as ease of operations. The system is able to provide information many type to users, because it is supported by a variety of data sources.
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Here, we are using the database recognition in system, by using this I will recognize my soldier and get the details send to authorized person. A primary consideration is that refugee claimants must be given access to the refugee status determination procedure (RSD procedure). Access to the RSD procedure depends upon the decision concerning the claimant’s admission to the territory. States must be careful to ensure that claimants are not summarily rejected at their borders before their claims have been considered due to the fact that refugee status is of a declaratory nature (a person does not become a refugee because of recognition, but is recognized because he/she is a refugee) and due to the fact that the principle of non-refoulement applies to asylum seekers whose requests for refugee status have not yet been determined.
At, last we get entire database to him at the same time if he is the wrong person means we will upload the photo in to mail also, here we are using the IOT. This image capture by using the RF camera in border security, it mainly based on the wireless data transmission.
Step 1: Setup the General Purpose Input/Output(GPIO)pins of the raspberry pi which is going to be used; we use pin 12,16,20 and 21 for outputs.
Step 2: Set the Ultrasonic sensor Trigger pin to 23(Output) and Echo pin to 24(Input)
Step 3: Check the input pins(pin 6,13,19 and 26) are passing inputs using pull_up_down resistors to respond if the sensor connection is UP or DOWN.
Step 4: Initially the output of Trigger would be set to FALSE ;Print”Waiting for Sensor to Settle”and allow to sleep for 2ms
Step 5: While True:Check the respective input pins
Step 6: if input pin 6 detects a value , then print “PIR Detected” (Motion Detection)
Step 7: if input pin 13 detects a value , then print “Metal Detected” (Metal Detection)
Step 8: if input pin 19 detects a value , then print “HB Detected” (HeartBeat Detection)
Step 9: Now the Trigger pin is set to TRUE to send out an Ultrasonic wave for 0.00001ms and then set to FALSE.
Step 10: The Echo pin is started and pulse_start time is noted and waits,on reception of the Ultrasonic Wave the pulse_end Time is noted.
Step 11: Calculate Duration: pulse_duration = pulse_end – pulse_start
Step 12: Calculation Distance: distance = pulse_duration * 17150
Step 13: Round off the value to 2 decimal places
Step 14: print “Distance:”,distance,”cm”
Step 15: if (distance<20) set output pin 12 to True and print "ultrasonic Detected" and sleep for 1ms Step 16: Cleanup the input/output pins to start afresh. 3.2.System Architecture: 3.2.1. Overall Framework: (Block Diagram): a. Block Diagram For Security: b. Block Diagram For IOT, GPS: 4. EXISTING SYSTEM: Manually Monitoring The Border Application By Using The Gsm Technology, It Will Take More Time To Get The Exact Situation Cctv Camera Monitoring Is Possible But Can't Able To Sense The Gas, Temperature, And Position Of The Valves. 5. PROPOSED SYSTEM: The Internet Of Things Is Regarded As The Third Wave Of Information Technology After Internet And Mobile Communication Network, Which Is Characterized By More Thorough Sense And Measure, More Comprehensive Interoperability And Intelligence. IOT Consumes The Time And Monitoring The Exact Situation In Borders. 6. HARDWARE MODULES 6.1.RASPBERRY PI: The Raspberry Pi is a credit card sized single-board computer with an open-source platform that has a thriving community of its own, similar to that of the audio. It can be used in various types of projects from beginners learning how to code to hobbyists designing home automation systems. There are a few versions of the Raspberry Pi, but the latest version, has improved upon its predecessor in terms of both form and functionality. The Raspberry Pi Model B features: Higher-spec variant increases the Raspberry pi GPIO pin count from 26 to 40 pins. There are now four USB 2.0 ports compared to two on the Model B. The SD card slot has been replaced with a more modern push-push type micro SD slot. It consumes slightly less power, provides better audio quality and has a cleaner form factor. To get started you need a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, a 5V USB power supply of at least 2 amps with a micro USB cable, any standard USB keyboard and mouse, an HDMI cable and monitor/TV for display, and a micro SD card with the operating system pre-installed. 6.2.PIR SENSOR: Passive Infrareds sensors (PIRs) are electronic devices which are used in some security alarm systems to detect motion of an infrared emitting source, usually a human body. The pyro electric sensor is made of a crystalline material that generates a surface electric charge when exposed to heat in the form of infrared radiation. When the amount of radiation striking the crystal changes, the amount of charge also changes and can then be measured with a sensitive FET device built into the sensor. This radiation (energy) is invisible to the human eye but can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose The actual sensor on the chip is made from natural or artificial pyro electric materials 6.3.METAL DETECTOR: A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground. They often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an indicator. Usually the device gives some indication of distance; the closer the metal is, the higher the tone in the earphone or the higher the needle goes. Another common type are stationary "walk through" metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons, courthouses, and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a person's body. The simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, and this produces a magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field (acting as a magnetometer), the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected. The first industrial metal detectors were developed in the 1960s and were used extensively for mineral prospecting and other industrial applications. Uses include detecting land mines, the detection of weapons such as knives and guns geophysical prospecting, archaeology and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are also used to detect foreign bodies in food, and in the construction industry to detect steel reinforcing bars in concrete and pipes and wires buried in walls and floors. 6.4.ULTRASONIC SENSOR Ultrasonic sensors service the market by providing a cost effective sensing method with unique properties not possessed by other sensing technologies. By using a wide variety of ultrasonic transducers and several different frequency ranges, an ultrasonic sensor can be designed to solve many application problems that are cost prohibitive or simply cannot be solved by other sensors. Long range detection: In industrial sensing, more and more applications require detection over distance. Ultrasonic sensors detect over long ranges up to forty feet, while limit switches and inductive sensors do not. Broad area detection: While some photo electric sensors can detect over long distances they lack the ability to detect over a wide area without using a large number of sensors. The advantage of Migatron's ultrasonic sensors is that both wide and narrow areas can be covered. All it takes is the proper ultrasonic transducer selection. Widest range of target materials: Only ultrasonic sensors are impervious to target material composition. The target material can be clear, solid, liquid, porous, soft, wood and any color because all can be detected. 7. OPEN CV OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is an open source computer vision and machine learning software library. OpenCV was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in the commercial products. Being a BSD-licensed product, OpenCV makes it easy for businesses to utilize and modify the code. The library has more than 2500 optimized algorithms, which includes a comprehensive set of both classic and state-of-the-art computer vision and machine learning algorithms. These algorithms can be used to detect and recognize faces, identify objects, classify human actions in videos, track camera movements, track moving objects, extract 3D models of objects, produce 3D point clouds from stereo cameras, stitch images together to produce a high resolution image of an entire scene, find similar images from an image database, remove red eyes from images taken using flash, follow eye movements, recognize scenery and establish markers to overlay it with augmented reality, etc. OpenCV has more than 47 thousand people of user community and estimated number of downloads exceeding. 8. PYTHON: The Python programming language actually started as a scripting language for Linux. Python programs are similar to shell scripts in that the files contain a series of commands that the computer executes from top to bottom. Python is a very useful and S.No ID WEIGHT HIGHT QUALIFICATION POSTION 1 659 250kg 6.9 tall APFT total score for 494 soldiers who had at least 3 APFT scores. Commander 726 267kg 5.5 tall Least square mean of BMI (kg/m2) over time by gender. lieutenant commander 327 gain of 0.90 kg (2.0 lb) Bronze Star, Defense Meritorious Service Medal and Air Force Meritorious Service colonel 9. DATA BASE: Versatile high level programming language, with easy to read syntax that allows programmers to use fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as assembly, C, or Java. Python programs don't need to be compiled before running them, as you do with C programs. However, you will need to install the Python interpreter on your computer to run them 10. TEMPERATURE SENSOR: If the voltage increases, then the temperature rises and there is a voltage drop between the transistor terminals of base & emitter, they are recorded by the sensors. If the difference in voltage is amplified, the analogue signal is generated by the device and it is directly proportional to the temperature. Thermocouple: It is a type of temperature sensor, which is made by joining two dissimilar metals at one end. The joined the other end of these dissimilar metals is referred to as the COLD END or COLD JUNCTION. The cold junction is actually formed at the last point of thermocouple material. If there is a difference in temperature between the hot junction and cold junction, a small voltage is created. This voltage is referred to as an EMF (electro-motive force) and can be measured and in turn used to indicate temperature. 11. CONCLUTION: At last we getting the result like the effective way to find the authorized person and also the unauthorized person the border. If may be they try enter our location we make the alert to the concern person. By using the smart we will monitor the soldier health parameter and human analysis and distance also. Using the data based we will collect the total securable data the each every solder and make the higher end security the border. 12. REFEANCE: 1 ZigBee Alliance Document 053474r06, ZigBee Specification, v. 1.0, Dec 2004. 2 F. L. Zucatto, C.A. Biscassi, F. Monsignore, F. Fidelix, S. Coutinho, and M. L. Rocha, "ZigBee for Building Control Wireless Sensor Networks," in proceeding of Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, pp. 511-515, Oct. 2007. 3 Il-Kyu Hwang and Jin-Wook Baek, "Wireless Access Monitoring and Control System based on Digital Door Lock," IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, Nov. 2007. pp 1724-1730. 4 A. Wheeler, "Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Network Using ZigBee", IEEE Communications Magazine, V. 45, N. 4, pp.:70 – 77, April 2007. 5 Eaton Corp., "Eaton Home Heartbeat," http://www.homeheartbeat.com/HomeHeartBeat/index.htm. 6 Boron-10 Loaded BC523A Liquid Scintillator for Neutron Detection in the Border Monitoring.