The goal of this
individual case study were to decrease the maladaptive behaviour showed by the
participants and have the participants verbalize his feeling before they build
up to cause the maladaptive behaviour. The study used positive reinforcement
and rewards to reinforce the positive behaviour displayed by the participants
as well as to deter negative bahavior. The participants made vast improvements
in expressing their emotions and also showed good improvement in controlling
his maladaptive behaviours. Implications of diagnosis of (ASD) Autism Spectrum
Disorder are discussed as we as explanation of other studies performed for
individuals with this diagnosis.
There is a great need
for more studies on children who have autism. Most of the present and past
studies have done before on children age of 5-13 years old with this disorder
and not the growing teenager. This study will help individuals with autism and
families to handle the individual’s behavior in a more positive way. This study
also helps to deliver ideas to other people or caregivers in order to help deal
will some of the behaviors that accompany this disorder.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The subject that will
be the participant in this intervention case study is a sixteen year old
Autistic teenager who has been not able to express and verbalize his feelings
in proper way. This frustration manifests in grinding of the teeth and
verbal/physical outbursts. The grinding of the teeth will happen before the
outburst. It’s important to teach the participants how to express and verbalize
his feelings in proper way to help control the negative behavior.
The purpose of this
case study is to decrease the behaviors that are being displayed. It’s also
important that the participants verbalize his feeling so the behaviors will
continue to decline.
RESEARCH QUESTION (HYPOTHESIS)
reinforcement the participant will decrease the behaviors of grinding his teeth
that lead up to his verbal or physical outbursts. The subject will instead
verbalize his feelings to avoid the bad outburst.
Autism: It is a complex
developmental disability that causes problems with social interaction as well as
communication deficits. The symptoms of this disorder usually start before the age
of three and are known to cause delays or problems in many different skills that
develop throughout their lives. It is more common in males than females and there
is no definitive cure for the disorder “Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2010).
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
(ASD): The disorder is often defined as a spectrum disorder, due to the fact that
different individuals with autism can have very different symptoms. The symptoms
can vary from mild to serve, but they are all part of the same disorder “Autism
Spectrum Disorders, 2010).
Occurs when a reward is given for a desired behavior which will overtime increase
the positive behavior (Fritscher, 2009).
I will discuss other studies
that have been conducted in the subject of autism as well as in behavioral interventions.
This study will help to show the gaps in the current research and the requirement
for this single case intervention study to be done.
Autism is a developmental
disability, which means that it causes pronounced symptoms that may affect the person’s
life in the long term. people who’ve been Identified with this perticular disorder
have pronounced impairments in the area of social and language communication, as
well as ritualistic and challenging behaviors (Wolery, 2005). They often are not
able to make friends or not to have meaningful relationship with people because
they do not possess skill to hold a dialogue in proper manner. They also usually
engage in behaviors that are not looked upon as socially acceptable by their peers,
which makes it more tough for them to find a place in society (Marohn, 2002). This
case will be explaining the different approaches to treating a child with Autism
and effects on the individuals life.
About 1 in every 100 children
are diagnosed with (ASD) Autism Spectrum Disorder (Dillenburger, 2009) which makes
important to understand the best effective treatments for these individuals so they
can be properly educated in both school life as well as social life. Children with
this disorder that are diagnosed early and set on a structured program can be expected
to make significant progress (Simpson, 2001). ABA. Applied Behavior Analysis, is
the most widely used intervention for autistic individuals by far. It offers an
empirical basis for diagnosis, assessment, and instruction for individuals with
autism (Wolfe, 2005). ABA also is the only treatment that is endorsed by the United
States Surgeon General and it is defined as science used to improve behavior.
Their interaction is of
great importance but the aggressive behaviors that are co- morbid with autism are
also a large factor in daily life. Individuals with autism often exhibit maladaptive
behaviors and these behaviors can cause great problems in the individual’s
life. The maladaptive behaviors in early childhood are a particular concern because
those are the critical years for interventions (Hartley, 2008). Autistic individuals
often exhibit serve behaviors such as self-inflicted harm or harm to others, which
can be reduced with interventions in some but not all cases.
People affected by the disorder have a limited range
of coping skills, so they are more susceptible to stress. This can cause emotional
problems that lead to emotional and behavioral manifestations that progress into
aggressive outbursts (Focht-New,
Aggression has no single widely accepted definition
but it refers to a whole range of behaviors from throwing objects or causing bodily
harm to themselves or others (Didden,2008). Physically hurting people causes challenges for
the caregivers of the individual as well as their safety being at risk (Tryrer,
2006). If the autistic individual does not receive some type of behavioral intervention,
the behaviors can get worse, remaining an even bigger challenge for caregivers (Matson,