Abstract— be applied to public transport domain. In

Abstract— The
(IoT) has great potential to overcome existing lack of public transport
systems. The key challenge of rapidly growing cities, is to provide effective
public transportation system. To overcome these existing deficiencies,embeded
smart technologies can be applied to public transport domain. In this
paper,briefly explain about applying embedded smart technology to the public
transport domain using UBN methodology,IoT in Urban Bus Navigation(UBN) enables
navigation system for bus riders.UBN provides two major services for bus
riders.The first one is Micro-Navigation and the second one is Crowd-Aware
route recommendation.The
Micro-Navigation service helps guidance for passengers along a bus
journey by finding boarded bus vehicles and tracking progress of their journey.
The Crowd-aware route recommendation service collects & predicts crowd
levels on bus journeys that helps the bus riders to find out better,efficient
and less congusted routes. UBN system provides users with a superior awareness
of the state of the transport system and their travel options which translates
into an improved public transport experience.These all helps the peoples to get
positive impact on public transport usage and encourage public bus journey.

Keywords:
Internet of Things (IoT), UBN System, Micro-Navigation, Ad-Hoc Communication
With Buses, Bus Crowd Density Estimation.

I.    
INTRODUCTION

 

I

Internet
of Things (IoT) is the connection of things to Internet.The IoT allows objects
to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure,
creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into
computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and
economic benefit in addition to reduced human intervention.The public bus transport systems have the capacity to
absorb large masses of urban travelers, their public image often suffers from a
negative perception.First, from the passenger’s view point, bus networks in
dense urban areas are often considered as complex and tough to
navigate.Second,in contrast to private modes of transport, traveling on buses
offers only a low level of comfort and least convenience. Third,bus journeys
lack a sense of personal control and ownership that is valued by car users.To
overcome these existing deficiencies,embeded smart technologies can be applied
to public transport domain.The Urban Bus Navigator(UBN),an IoT enabled
navigation system for bus riders uses Micro-navigation technology and crowd
aware route recommendation methods for satisfying the needs.The UBN relies on a
distributed IoT system comprising

 

 

an
embedded bus computing system, backend computing infrastructure and a mobile
smartphone app to detect the

 

presence
of passengers on buses and provide continuous real-time navigation over the
complete course of a bus journey.6 UBN system provides users with a superior
awareness of the state of the transport system and their travel options which
translates into an improved public transport experience. Navigation system for
bus passengers that has the ability to seamlessly interconnect bus passengers
with the real-world public bus infrastructure.All in all, UBN demonstrates the
potential of the IoT for delivering innovative urban transport experiences and
enhances the use of public transportation services.

II.    
METHODOLOGY

The
UBN system is built upon a distributed IoT infrastructure which enables the
passenger’s smartphone devices to interact with buses in real-time and buses to
sense the presence of on board passengers6.

Based
on these mechanisms, UBN provides two novel information services for bus
passengers,they are  Micro-navigation and
Crowd-aware route Recommendation.Figure 1

Micro-navigation
refers to fine-grained contextual guidance of passengers along a bus journey by
recognizing boarded bus vehicles and tracking the passenger’s journey
progress.Crowd-aware route recommendation collects and predicts crowd levels on
bus journeys to suggest better and less crowded routes to bus riders.

Figure 1 Overview of the structure of bus journey

 

UBN
involves a set of distributed software and hardware components which are
tightly integrated with the bus systemFigure 2. UBN composed of 3 key
components: 1. The network-enabled urban bus system with WiFi equipped bus
vehicles. 2. The UBN navigation app for bus riders. 3. The bus crowd
information server to collect real-time occupancy information from buses operating
on different routes.

Figure 2 UBN System

The
Network-enabled urban bus system sense real-world bus journeys of passengers
and enable sharing of bus data with their mobile devices in an ad hoc
manner.The Crowd density estimation detects the number of passengers on a bus.
For the purpose of bus crowd density estimation,the WiFi-enabled devices
carried by passengers are periodically sending out probe requests according to
their IEEE802.11 protocol operation in order to detect the access points that are
nearby. Each vehicle deploy WiFi access point that acts as a network monitor to
continuously capture transmitted probe requests. Thus finding out the count of
passengers.The bus navigation system adds two novel components to the backend
system for making effective use of the available bus occupancy information.1)Predicting Bus Occupancy From Crowd Level
Histories,2) Least Crowded Route Recommendation.The smartphone
application for bus passengers supports real-time navigation of buses by
interaction.

Another method used for urban navigation transportation
system is Novel Wireless Sensor Network Frame for Urban Transportation4.It discuss about the  requirements of WSN for urban transportation
(WSN-UT) using a customized network topology.WSN-UT enables users to obtain
traffic and road information directly from the local WSN within its wireless
scope.Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies that are low cost, low power,
and self-configuring are a key function in ITS. The potential application
scenarios and design requirements of WSN for urban transportation (WSN-UT) are
proposed in this work. A customized network topology is designed to meet the
special requirements, and WSN-UT is specifically tailored for UT applications.
WSN-UT enables users to obtain traffic and road information directly from the
local WSN within its wireless scope instead of the remote ITS data center.
WSN-UT can be configured according to different scenario requirements. A
three-level subsystem and a configuration and service subsystem constitute the
WSN-UT network frame, and the service/interface and protocol algorithms for
every subsystem level are designed for WSN-UT.

Another method is  Characterizing Road Segments Using Compass
Sensors to Predict Approaching Bus Stops2.In this method it explains about
technologies that make arrival predictions through tracking vehicles in transit
through GPS provides a personalized approach via smart phone that helps users
to take advantage of sensor data to learn and personalize their bus routes, and
alert them on time when a bus stop is approaching.Two algorithms used in this
method,1) Turn detection using on-board compass sensor of a smartphone.2)
Characterizing road segments in terms of turns and thereby predicting
approaching bus stops.In this methodology design it avoids dependence on
GPS functionality and instead relies on compass sensors, which are far more
energy efficient.

Another method is Intelligent Transportation System for
Detection and Control of Congested Roads in Urban Centers1.This paper
proposes the uses Intelligent Transportation Systems technology. ITSs use
advances in technology in the areas of processing, sensing and communication to
monitor the traffic conditions in a particular region, manage and decrease congestion,
and reduce the number of accidents.A Vehicular Network is an important
component in an ITS.It contains network,vehicles are equipped with processors,
sensors and wireless communication interfaces so that they can communicate with
one another and with the elements in the network infrastructure(RSU – Road Side
Unit), thus creating an ad hoc network while vehicles move through roads and
prevent congestion and improve the efficiency of transportation systems.