Abstract— The(IoT) has great potential to overcome existing lack of public transportsystems. The key challenge of rapidly growing cities, is to provide effectivepublic transportation system. To overcome these existing deficiencies,embededsmart technologies can be applied to public transport domain. In thispaper,briefly explain about applying embedded smart technology to the publictransport domain using UBN methodology,IoT in Urban Bus Navigation(UBN) enablesnavigation system for bus riders.UBN provides two major services for busriders.
The first one is Micro-Navigation and the second one is Crowd-Awareroute recommendation.TheMicro-Navigation service helps guidance for passengers along a busjourney by finding boarded bus vehicles and tracking progress of their journey.The Crowd-aware route recommendation service collects & predicts crowdlevels on bus journeys that helps the bus riders to find out better,efficientand less congusted routes. UBN system provides users with a superior awarenessof the state of the transport system and their travel options which translatesinto an improved public transport experience.
These all helps the peoples to getpositive impact on public transport usage and encourage public bus journey.Keywords:Internet of Things (IoT), UBN System, Micro-Navigation, Ad-Hoc CommunicationWith Buses, Bus Crowd Density Estimation.I. INTRODUCTION I Internetof Things (IoT) is the connection of things to Internet.The IoT allows objectsto be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure,creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world intocomputer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy andeconomic benefit in addition to reduced human intervention.The public bus transport systems have the capacity toabsorb large masses of urban travelers, their public image often suffers from anegative perception.First, from the passenger’s view point, bus networks indense urban areas are often considered as complex and tough tonavigate.
Second,in contrast to private modes of transport, traveling on busesoffers only a low level of comfort and least convenience. Third,bus journeyslack a sense of personal control and ownership that is valued by car users.Toovercome these existing deficiencies,embeded smart technologies can be appliedto public transport domain.The Urban Bus Navigator(UBN),an IoT enablednavigation system for bus riders uses Micro-navigation technology and crowdaware route recommendation methods for satisfying the needs.
The UBN relies on adistributed IoT system comprising anembedded bus computing system, backend computing infrastructure and a mobilesmartphone app to detect the presenceof passengers on buses and provide continuous real-time navigation over thecomplete course of a bus journey.6 UBN system provides users with a superiorawareness of the state of the transport system and their travel options whichtranslates into an improved public transport experience. Navigation system forbus passengers that has the ability to seamlessly interconnect bus passengerswith the real-world public bus infrastructure.All in all, UBN demonstrates thepotential of the IoT for delivering innovative urban transport experiences andenhances the use of public transportation services.II. METHODOLOGYTheUBN system is built upon a distributed IoT infrastructure which enables thepassenger’s smartphone devices to interact with buses in real-time and buses tosense the presence of on board passengers6.
Basedon these mechanisms, UBN provides two novel information services for buspassengers,they are Micro-navigation andCrowd-aware route Recommendation.Figure 1Micro-navigationrefers to fine-grained contextual guidance of passengers along a bus journey byrecognizing boarded bus vehicles and tracking the passenger’s journeyprogress.Crowd-aware route recommendation collects and predicts crowd levels onbus journeys to suggest better and less crowded routes to bus riders.Figure 1 Overview of the structure of bus journey UBNinvolves a set of distributed software and hardware components which aretightly integrated with the bus systemFigure 2. UBN composed of 3 keycomponents: 1.
The network-enabled urban bus system with WiFi equipped busvehicles. 2. The UBN navigation app for bus riders.
3. The bus crowdinformation server to collect real-time occupancy information from buses operatingon different routes.Figure 2 UBN SystemTheNetwork-enabled urban bus system sense real-world bus journeys of passengersand enable sharing of bus data with their mobile devices in an ad hocmanner.The Crowd density estimation detects the number of passengers on a bus.For the purpose of bus crowd density estimation,the WiFi-enabled devicescarried by passengers are periodically sending out probe requests according totheir IEEE802.11 protocol operation in order to detect the access points that arenearby. Each vehicle deploy WiFi access point that acts as a network monitor tocontinuously capture transmitted probe requests. Thus finding out the count ofpassengers.
The bus navigation system adds two novel components to the backendsystem for making effective use of the available bus occupancy information.1)Predicting Bus Occupancy From Crowd LevelHistories,2) Least Crowded Route Recommendation.The smartphoneapplication for bus passengers supports real-time navigation of buses byinteraction.Another method used for urban navigation transportationsystem is Novel Wireless Sensor Network Frame for Urban Transportation4.It discuss about the requirements of WSN for urban transportation(WSN-UT) using a customized network topology.WSN-UT enables users to obtaintraffic and road information directly from the local WSN within its wirelessscope.Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies that are low cost, low power,and self-configuring are a key function in ITS.
The potential applicationscenarios and design requirements of WSN for urban transportation (WSN-UT) areproposed in this work. A customized network topology is designed to meet thespecial requirements, and WSN-UT is specifically tailored for UT applications.WSN-UT enables users to obtain traffic and road information directly from thelocal WSN within its wireless scope instead of the remote ITS data center.WSN-UT can be configured according to different scenario requirements. Athree-level subsystem and a configuration and service subsystem constitute theWSN-UT network frame, and the service/interface and protocol algorithms forevery subsystem level are designed for WSN-UT.Another method is Characterizing Road Segments Using CompassSensors to Predict Approaching Bus Stops2.
In this method it explains abouttechnologies that make arrival predictions through tracking vehicles in transitthrough GPS provides a personalized approach via smart phone that helps usersto take advantage of sensor data to learn and personalize their bus routes, andalert them on time when a bus stop is approaching.Two algorithms used in thismethod,1) Turn detection using on-board compass sensor of a smartphone.2)Characterizing road segments in terms of turns and thereby predictingapproaching bus stops.In this methodology design it avoids dependence onGPS functionality and instead relies on compass sensors, which are far moreenergy efficient.Another method is Intelligent Transportation System forDetection and Control of Congested Roads in Urban Centers1.This paperproposes the uses Intelligent Transportation Systems technology. ITSs useadvances in technology in the areas of processing, sensing and communication tomonitor the traffic conditions in a particular region, manage and decrease congestion,and reduce the number of accidents.A Vehicular Network is an importantcomponent in an ITS.It contains network,vehicles are equipped with processors,sensors and wireless communication interfaces so that they can communicate withone another and with the elements in the network infrastructure(RSU – Road SideUnit), thus creating an ad hoc network while vehicles move through roads andprevent congestion and improve the efficiency of transportation systems.