A subculture is a group with its own values, practices, identities and beliefs that often defy the norms of mainstream culture. Share identity within a subculture can be internal as well as external, such as tattoos for certain subcultures, which help the participants within that subculture to feel united and a sense of belonging. Oftentimes the participants within a subculture do not fit well into the dominant culture. Subcultures exist within wider society and generally has either passive or active resistance that exist at a micro or macro level, depending on what or for whom the resistance is directed towards.
However, similar to mainstream cultures, subcultures bases stratification on cultural and symbolic capital, and authenticity. Subcultures often have loose and unofficial participation, as the boundaries of involvement in subculture is fluid.Pt IICult is a group of people with beliefs that are deemed unorthodox or against conventional values, and the members often have excessive and unquestioned devotions toward a charismatic leader. The leader controls most, if not all, parts of the members’ lives, often enforcing the idea of cutting all ties with anything outside of the cult.
Sometimes, the leaders use different method of persuasion and control to use the members for their own gain. Cult recruits are often young people experiencing difficulties in life, which are more easily conveyed by a friendly recruiter who offers empathy and understanding. During the process of initiation — such as brainwashing — some cults have, recruits would often develop psychological disorders such as dissociative identity disorder. Although some cults are small and pose no harm to their members or society, some other extreme cults are/and or were dangerous and harmful.Pt IIIJoe Carroll is followed by a group of troubled, weak-minded individuals who are lonely and easily conveyed in the TV show The Following.
He manipulates them to worship him and the word of Edgar Allan Poe, and has them believing that death is equal to beauty while he teaches them how to turn their killings into artwork and something meaningful — each follower will be one chapter of the novel he is writing. He preys on those who have endured traumatic pasts and becomes like a father figure to them. It is undoubtable that Joe’s following group is a cult, and Joe is the charismatic and often unquestioned leader of such cult. Carroll uses themes, symbolism, and imagery from the works of Edgar Allan Poe to inspire his and later his followers’ murders and his vision. “The Lighthouse”, “The Raven” and “The Telltale Heart”, are all frequently quoted at the crime scenes and also supposedly inspired the murders.
Joe’s most loyal follower Emma stabs her abusive mother to death after she started talking to Joe and is inspired to take control of her own life. This is her first kill and killing later becomes an initiation process for all the followers—only killers can join the cult and Paul has to prove himself by stabbing someone to death. Joe is his own recruiter for the cult, he would meet with fans and admirers who are also killers in prison organize them to meet together to discuss how to execute his plans among themselves.
These individuals are often withered psychotic or troubled, such as Emma who suffers a abusive mother, Jacob with a strict father and others who feel lost and inferior.