IntroductionThis chapter presents the discussion andresults of the study; these will be followed by implications and suggestionsfor EFL teaching and learning as well as further research. The purpose of thisthesis was to compare the effectiveness of twowidely used EFL listening comprehension methods, namely CLT and ALM, on IranianEFL learners’ listening comprehension. Toachieve this goal, this study was organized into five chapters, successivelythe introduction, the review of literature and theoretical preliminaries, themethod and procedure of carrying out the thesis, the discussion of findings andthe conclusion of the work. 5.
2. Discussion 5.2.1 Discussion in Relation to Research Question 1This study endeavored to examine the effectiveness of using ALM versus CLTtechniques for Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension.
The results ofthe paired-sample t-tests revealed that both mode of listening instruction wereeffective in enhancing learners’ listening comprehension; however, the resultsof the independent-samples t-test indicated that the participants in the firstexperimental group who were taught listening throughcommunicative approach performed significantly better than those of the secondexperimental group receiving instruction via ALM. Listeningcomprehension has an integral part in people’s dailylives, as a method of communication, in conformity with Sobouti and Amiri (2014). Listening comprehension goes beyond the simple interpretation of vocalsounds. Due to this, it must be known as an intricately active procedure ofexplanation that demands listeners to combine the heard materials with theircurrent knowledge (Rost, 2002). Through the past40 years, there were shifts on the concentration of listening teaching and theaccentuation on instruction of listening. Teaching styles of the behavioristmethod like for instance ‘listening to repeat’ method of the audio-lingual timewere central in the past because of misconception about listening known aspassive activity, which led to few teaching and concentration of classroom. Nevertheless, in the contemporary time, listening is acknowledged as anactive process, which is crucial to L2 learning, be worthy of teaching, andsystematic development. Hence, the common method is ‘real-life listening inreal time’, which comprises communicative tasks (Morley, 1999).
Overall,there have been great changes in language instructing profession. Instructingapproaches and methods shifting from Grammar Translation to Task-based had cometo exist in diverse phases in teachers, linguists’ diligently aim to developquality of both instructing and languages learning. The later methods andapproaches did not completely encompass the preceding methods and approaches.Yet, it maintains the essence and condemns the disadvantages of them which leadto invention new methodology to the field determining its suitability forinstructing and learning contexts in a specific dated. A range of researcheshave been investigated for centuries on teaching approaches and methodsthinking progressively apprehension of both speaking and listening skills andthe acknowledgement of the significance of such skills in instructing,acquiring, and exploiting the target language. Educators and peoples are encountering with the major difficulty ofdeveloping teaching and learning English quality since they have been ponderedas part of their social, economic and political development strategies. In Iran,it is not long time that CLT has just actually been propagated and exploited inEnglish classrooms to enhance English competence of students.
There are stillgreat amount of objective and subjective factors influencing on theeffectiveness of such communicative method in Iran education system. Hence, CLTwill be the most proper one in order to be used in the next years Iranianteaching and learning context prior to making an attempt to exploit the laterones. Having a good listening comprehension skill has always been theprinciple apprehension of both EFL students and their teachers who desire toinstruct the authentic context English particularly for communicativeintentions, which is indicated by Hayati (2009). Since listening is most likely the least overt of the four languageskills, improving it can be one of the most difficult skills for ESL learners(Vandergrift, 2004).
The intricate procedure by which intention is derived fromthe river of speaking voice has been a struggling issue in languageacquisition. The intricate procedure of comprehension, as confirmed in thepresent research, can become easy by utilizing interactive methods. 5.3.Conclusion5.3.
1. Contributions of the Present StudyIn an attempt to evaluate the qualityof common instructional methods of EFL listening comprehension in Iran, two listeningcomprehension methods used for teaching listening to Iranian EFL learners atvarious private institutes and/or universities, namely CLT and ALM, wereselected to see if they are effective in enhancing learners’ listeningcomprehension. In other words, the current study aimed to compare theeffectiveness of CLT versus ALM on Iranian intermediate EFLlearners’ listening comprehension.
It concluded that listening has been significantly improved as aresult of using CLT techniques and instructional method at the significancelevel of .05. Throughthe arrival of communicative and proficiency-oriented approaches to languageteaching, which has highlighted listening within all levels of languagelearning, listening was no longer underestimated in second languageacquisition, is crucial to be noted. 5.4. Limitations of the StudyThe currentstudy suffered from some limitations.
The participants in the present study werelimited to those EFL students at intermediate level of English proficiency whoenrolled in one private language institute. Therefore, the findings may not beapplicable to the students with medium and high English proficiency. Inaddition, the number of the participants was limited to 60 learners whichlimited the generalizability of the findings of the current study.The other major problem of the present study was the scope of thevariables such as motivation, attitude, emotion, personality, gender, learningstyle, and the effects of socio-economic background which could not becontrolled. Indeed, the effect of these intervening variables was notconsidered in the present study.
5.5. Implications and Recommendations5.5.1. Pedagogical ImplicationsIn the current research the effect of ALM versus CLT techniques on listeningcomprehension ability of female Iranian EFL learners in English Institute wasinvestigated. The most significant aspect of the present research is itsrelationship with the practicality of the research.
The English language hasbeen considered one of the key component in keeping up with the globalizationtrend in Iran. Therefore English has been a compulsory subject in the Iranianeducational curriculum, and knowledge of the English language is looked upon astop priority for all Iranian at all levels. This situation has created greatdemands in developing effective and efficient learning and teaching models inEnglish education. Likewise, the students and the teachers have paid moreattention to CLT instructional approaches in order to help Iranian EFL learnersto have native like proficiency in the English language. English teaching,learning theories and methods have been introduced through a great deal ofresearch despite that research comparatively little has been done to examinethe Iranian EFL learner. The resultsgained in this study can be used in the listening classroom to teach studentshow to improve listening ability. Moreover, Teachers can understand andrecognize which parts of listening comprehension are challenging for thelearners or which parts are not fully considered by them.
Then they can stressthat successful listening comprehension would not take place unless someappropriate tasks and strategies are implemented systematically. Emphasizing the significance ofindividuals’ differences and their various learning styles, this studyencouraged teachers to provide opportunities for learners to become acquaintedwith the principles of ELT and help them apply them in their own listeningclassrooms. The proposed study showed that using CLT technique could beconsidered as an effective way for teaching and learning of listening skill. It could also offer valuable insights toEFL/ ESL/ESP teachers and syllabus designers to incorporate CLT methodology intheir teaching syllabi. Therefore, in the light of the findings of this study,it is recommended that language teachers incorporate CLT instructional methodsand activities into the classroom activities to accelerate students’ developmentin listening skill and to promote and sustain learners’ effort in performancecompletion. These provide students with differentconditions to practice the language communicatively and developcognitively.
Moreover, according to thefindings of the current study, it can be concluded that using CLT technique canbe regarded as an efficient strategy to develop learners’ language proficiencyin EFL contexts like Iran. 5.5.2. Recommendations for Future ResearchSomesuggestions for further research on EFL learners are presented in this section: In the present study, only femaleparticipants took part, which limits the generalization of the results. Futurestudies need to be conducted with male students to get a more comprehensiveview of the effect of the aforementioned methodology on Iranian students. The present study was conducted on intermediate EFLlearner. However conducting similar studies in other level is also recommended.
In thepresent research only audio taped material was used to investigate thelistening comprehension performance of language learners, but it is recommendedthat a similar research be conducted by using audio–visual for checking theeffect of different modes of instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ listeningcomprehension.