5.1. introduction, the review of literature and theoretical


5.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the discussion and
results of the study; these will be followed by implications and suggestions
for EFL teaching and learning as well as further research. The purpose of this
thesis was to compare the effectiveness of two
widely used EFL listening comprehension methods, namely CLT and ALM, on Iranian
EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To
achieve this goal, this study was organized into five chapters, successively
the introduction, the review of literature and theoretical preliminaries, the
method and procedure of carrying out the thesis, the discussion of findings and
the conclusion of the work.

5.2. Discussion        

5.2.1 Discussion in Relation to Research Question 1

This study endeavored to examine the effectiveness of using ALM versus CLT
techniques for Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The results of
the paired-sample t-tests revealed that both mode of listening instruction were
effective in enhancing learners’ listening comprehension; however, the results
of the independent-samples t-test indicated that the participants in the first
experimental group who were taught listening through
communicative approach performed significantly better than those of the second
experimental group receiving instruction via ALM.

comprehension has an integral part in people’s daily
lives, as a method of communication, in conformity with Sobouti and Amiri (2014). 
Listening comprehension goes beyond the simple interpretation of vocal
sounds. Due to this, it must be known as an intricately active procedure of
explanation that demands listeners to combine the heard materials with their
current knowledge (Rost, 2002). Through the past
40 years, there were shifts on the concentration of listening teaching and the
accentuation on instruction of listening. Teaching styles of the behaviorist
method like for instance ‘listening to repeat’ method of the audio-lingual time
were central in the past because of misconception about listening known as
passive activity, which led to few teaching and concentration of classroom.

Nevertheless, in the contemporary time, listening is acknowledged as an
active process, which is crucial to L2 learning, be worthy of teaching, and
systematic development. Hence, the common method is ‘real-life listening in
real time’, which comprises communicative tasks (Morley, 1999).

there have been great changes in language instructing profession. Instructing
approaches and methods shifting from Grammar Translation to Task-based had come
to exist in diverse phases in teachers, linguists’ diligently aim to develop
quality of both instructing and languages learning. The later methods and
approaches did not completely encompass the preceding methods and approaches.
Yet, it maintains the essence and condemns the disadvantages of them which lead
to invention new methodology to the field determining its suitability for
instructing and learning contexts in a specific dated. A range of researches
have been investigated for centuries on teaching approaches and methods
thinking progressively apprehension of both speaking and listening skills and
the acknowledgement of the significance of such skills in instructing,
acquiring, and exploiting the target language.

Educators and peoples are encountering with the major difficulty of
developing teaching and learning English quality since they have been pondered
as part of their social, economic and political development strategies. In Iran,
it is not long time that CLT has just actually been propagated and exploited in
English classrooms to enhance English competence of students. There are still
great amount of objective and subjective factors influencing on the
effectiveness of such communicative method in Iran education system. Hence, CLT
will be the most proper one in order to be used in the next years Iranian
teaching and learning context prior to making an attempt to exploit the later

Having a good listening comprehension skill has always been the
principle apprehension of both EFL students and their teachers who desire to
instruct the authentic context English particularly for communicative
intentions, which is indicated by Hayati (2009).

Since listening is most likely the least overt of the four language
skills, improving it can be one of the most difficult skills for ESL learners
(Vandergrift, 2004). The intricate procedure by which intention is derived from
the river of speaking voice has been a struggling issue in language
acquisition. The intricate procedure of comprehension, as confirmed in the
present research, can become easy by utilizing interactive methods.



5.3.1. Contributions of the Present Study

In an attempt to evaluate the quality
of common instructional methods of EFL listening comprehension in Iran, two listening
comprehension methods used for teaching listening to Iranian EFL learners at
various private institutes and/or universities, namely CLT and ALM, were
selected to see if they are effective in enhancing learners’ listening
comprehension. In other words, the current study aimed to compare the
effectiveness of CLT versus ALM on Iranian intermediate EFL
learners’ listening comprehension. It concluded that listening has been significantly improved as a
result of using CLT techniques and instructional method at the significance
level of .05.

the arrival of communicative and proficiency-oriented approaches to language
teaching, which has highlighted listening within all levels of language
learning, listening was no longer underestimated in second language
acquisition, is crucial to be noted.  


5.4. Limitations of the Study

The current
study suffered from some limitations. The participants in the present study were
limited to those EFL students at intermediate level of English proficiency who
enrolled in one private language institute. Therefore, the findings may not be
applicable to the students with medium and high English proficiency. In
addition, the number of the participants was limited to 60 learners which
limited the generalizability of the findings of the current study.

The other major problem of the present study was the scope of the
variables such as motivation, attitude, emotion, personality, gender, learning
style, and the effects of socio-economic background which could not be
controlled. Indeed, the effect of these intervening variables was not
considered in the present study.


5.5. Implications and Recommendations

5.5.1. Pedagogical Implications

In the current research the effect of ALM versus CLT techniques on listening
comprehension ability of female Iranian EFL learners in English Institute was
investigated. The most significant aspect of the present research is its
relationship with the practicality of the research. The English language has
been considered one of the key component in keeping up with the globalization
trend in Iran. Therefore English has been a compulsory subject in the Iranian
educational curriculum, and knowledge of the English language is looked upon as
top priority for all Iranian at all levels. This situation has created great
demands in developing effective and efficient learning and teaching models in
English education. Likewise, the students and the teachers have paid more
attention to CLT instructional approaches in order to help Iranian EFL learners
to have native like proficiency in the English language. English teaching,
learning theories and methods have been introduced through a great deal of
research despite that research comparatively little has been done to examine
the Iranian EFL learner.  The results
gained in this study can be used in the listening classroom to teach students
how to improve listening ability.

     Moreover, Teachers can understand and
recognize which parts of listening comprehension are challenging for the
learners or which parts are not fully considered by them. Then they can stress
that successful listening comprehension would not take place unless some
appropriate tasks and strategies are implemented systematically.

      Emphasizing the significance of
individuals’ differences and their various learning styles, this study
encouraged teachers to provide opportunities for learners to become acquainted
with the principles of ELT and help them apply them in their own listening
classrooms. The proposed study showed that using CLT technique could be
considered as an effective way for teaching and learning of listening skill.

       It could also offer valuable insights to
EFL/ ESL/ESP teachers and syllabus designers to incorporate CLT methodology in
their teaching syllabi. Therefore, in the light of the findings of this study,
it is recommended that language teachers incorporate CLT instructional methods
and activities into the classroom activities to accelerate students’ development
in listening skill and to promote and sustain learners’ effort in performance

     These provide students with different
conditions to practice the language communicatively and develop
cognitively.  Moreover, according to the
findings of the current study, it can be concluded that using CLT technique can
be regarded as an efficient strategy to develop learners’ language proficiency
in EFL contexts like Iran.


5.5.2. Recommendations for Future Research

suggestions for further research on EFL learners are presented in this section:

     In the present study, only female
participants took part, which limits the generalization of the results. Future
studies need to be conducted with male students to get a more comprehensive
view of the effect of the aforementioned methodology on Iranian students.

     The present study was conducted on intermediate EFL
learner. However conducting similar studies in other level is also recommended.

       In the
present research only audio taped material was used to investigate the
listening comprehension performance of language learners, but it is recommended
that a similar research be conducted by using audio–visual for checking the
effect of different modes of instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ listening