4. sewing. 4.2 Basic details of respondents Personal

4. Findings


4.1 Introduction


Findings are an integral part of a
research paper since it gives the right solution to various problems discussed
in the previous sections. But the key to having
a successful endeavor for putting down the findings section is to have good
organizational skills for both research and writing. The main idea behind this
paper, the role of women in Mastung
district, was clear-cut while writing
this section. The primary points that had nature of extreme importance were
identified and roughly written in notes and diaries for safe keeping.


The primary aim of this research
paper is to have a processed discussion and get a mandatory conclusion for the
issues regarding the role of women in the Mastung district of Pakistan. The
important reason behind this had been the desire to choose this current district,
which has major in its area under the rural and tribal rule.


The Mastung district is 13th
largest in entire Pakistan but is still
facing illiteracy and men dominance. This had been another reason for the
selection of this district for the purpose of recognizing and encouraging the
growth of women with respect to empowerment. At first, about 22 respondents
were chosen among the rural and urban areas of the district for the project and
they were given training for specific fields of business. After the completion
of training program, they were called upon by our professionals and interviewed
asking various official as well as personal questions. About 11 of them were unmarried,
2 were widowed or living separately from their husbands and the remaining 9
were married women. Out of the total subject women, about 6 unmarried ones were given training in becoming a beautician
and the rest of the women were trained in embroidery and sewing.


4.2 Basic details of respondents


Personal details such as education
and age of the respondents play vital roles in
the achievement of successful endeavor of having proper research and results.
It was important to see that the level of internalizing the concepts of the
training sessions each one of them possessed. Majority of the women (32%) were
studied were having higher education along with the education period of 12
years. Other 14% had graduation and matric certificates with the education
period of 10, 8 and 5 years respectively. And the remaining 4% only were
possessing a master degree. Other than
that, the uneducated women had the similar quantity of the educated ones. The officials who took the interview noted
that the uneducated and illiterate women were hesitant to speak about their
level of education in front of professional people around them. On the other
hand, the educated women proudly spoke about their educational qualification
during the interview.


The age factor is important when it
comes to education and admission to some course or certificate program since
the basic criteria for it are that the
possible candidates should be at least 16 years of age. The researchers also had
to keep in mind the importance of age factors while giving the respondents
proper training in their respective field of study. They found out that they
had 21 to 30 years of women in their research process. About three of them were
between 15 to 20, 31 to 35 and 41 to 45 years of age respectively. This showed
that the age factor was not proved to be a barrier to gaining education and trying to have a well-built platform for
earning money.


Other than that, the family of
respondents mattered too since the majority
of the females in Mastung district had to face a similar problem of being dominated by male members of their
families. The researchers found out that the women living with fathers and
mothers respectively were mostly unmarried and the average size of the family they had was 7 to 8 members. The income
they received by doing small-scale
business in the trained field were given to parents for providing better health
and education facilities to them and other family members. As many as 10
married women, having about 3 or 4 of the members of the family, had to take
permission of their in-laws before having to start their individual business. The
women who had big sized families had to face many problems since they had to
take both families as well as the
business responsibilities.


4.3 Disempowering factors for women


Since rural areas still have a sense
of dominance in males, it was impossible for women to have a comparative power
with respect to men. Women had many restrictions regarding their freedom and
low possibilities of having a good education.
They had limited opportunities for recreation and minimum independence for
social and economic growth. There have had been multiple reasons for this condition of women in Mastung and many
factors such as traditional mindset or dominance habit were responsible for
this situation. In the interview, they asked these women to think and speak
about the factors that were leading reasons for their disempowerment in
progress and earning money. The reply, the interviewers received various
answers regarding the responsible factors that have been hampering the growth
of women in Mastung district: low education, traditional mindset of men, cultural and social influence, rural
background, no financial support, and poverty. Except
for religion, women respondents considered previously mentioned factors
as the reasons for their disempowerment.
Interviewers even asked few of these women and girls about religion being one
of the reasons but the greatly disagreed with it. Since the interview was taken
before family members of each woman, they had this uneasiness while giving
answers, especially the ones regarding religion.


4.4 Other problems and motivation


It was assumed that women the
researchers chose as respondents would be having problems while asking
permission to attend the training programs. But surprisingly, about 18 of them
never faced such condition and in fact,
they easily got the required permission restriction for attaining the training
program. Their families didn’t stop these women from willing to achieve the
training of skills and development for the offered projects. The primary reason
behind this attitude could be that they were neighbors of many big cities of
Pakistan. Women who faced such situation were given training on the household
level and there were about only 4 of them. The responsible factors of such
conditions were the obstacles created by male members of their family.


There were multiple motivation
factors that led women respondents to go for achieving the current positions in
their small-scale businesses. Upon being
asked by the interviewer over their particular motivation in the decision-making process, they answered mostly
similar reasons. They needed independence with respect to economy, living, and
they wanted to have improved way of living. The major factor that was found to
be was the worried thoughts they shared about the education, health, and nutrition of their respective children.
They wanted to have a better for their children since they themselves were
bereft of it. The thought of improved life and having good sources of living in a family
and its members provided the highest
quality of motivation to these women for trying to achieve independent economy.


4.5 The process of decision making


The secondary aim of this research was to have a complete and
accurate measurement of the empowerment capacity with respect to the socioeconomic level of development. To have a
detailed analysis, however, becomes mandatory on the level of the household to get better results for research
findings. It was important to see the decision making power in a family if it’s
the women or the male members. The results should be able to show the social
level of women in her family. If the women do not take decisions, even minor
ones, then the male members would likely to dominate her at all costs.


The results were quite contrary to
what the researchers were expecting. The married women, about 75% of them, were
the source of personal decisions in the family regarding children health and
education, investments, management of food and kitchen, decisions regarding
their personal choices of attending functions or seminars and many more. But
that of unmarried women were quite contrary to
the previous findings. The unmarried women were not allowed to take their
decisions and choices of their own rather their parents decided everything on
their behalf. 11 of the respondents reported that their decision-making capabilities were empowered ever since they had
started to attain the training program provided by the researchers, which was
the key motive of them.


The important questions interviewers
asked these women were about their
present relationship status with their respective husbands at the household level. The replies varied in
their personal level but the majority of
them stated that they had better and blossoming relationships with their
husbands. They were about to make friendly contact with the male partners and
had decision-making capacity that they
shared with their other half partners. There were only 2 females who reported
the poor relationship issue with their respective husbands at home. One of them
said that her husband would try to become an obstacle between his wife and the small-scale business that she had started. The
other one stated that the reason for poor relationship between her and her husband
was the early marriage that their parents had done. Such cases are rare in the
modern world since many parents today ask the whereabouts from their children’s
perception before getting them married. It was reported by the researchers that
because of the nearby cities in Pakistan, the condition of that particular
rural area was changing since the husbands willingly allowed their wives to
have job opportunities or get tied to a small scale business at the household level.


question these respondents were asked that if the training and business
goals affected their traditional and social life they had been living all this
while, which includes household chores, child upbringing, cooking, washing
clothes, and so on. In reply, the respondents declared that they did not have even
slightest trouble in having to perform their business activities even though
their work had increased and their lives became hardships in the sea of
surviving. They informed that the household chores were to be performed in the morning and evening while the
middle part was left for their business activities.


4.6 Training effects


The observations and ideas are
famous for women who usually work to have
economic independence since their responsibilities increases. She has to do
multitasking by taking care of her household chores as well as to do the
perfectly firm management of her business. Her work pressures increase to the extent that if compared to the
counterparts who didn’t have training and business initiation, respondents had
longer hours of work. When they successfully became the socially economic
independent women, it was mandatory to have registered or measured records of
the field training, effects on family
relations, working hours etc.


The effects of research field
training varied in unmarried and married girls since the former ones never had
to do the chores activities all alone as the married ones do. They didn’t have
to carry out the heavy burden of having extra hours of workload since they
received help from the female members of their respective families.
Comparatively, their household chores hours were less than the ones in their
family members since their focus had been the small business that they started.
On the other hand, many married women stated that about 50% married candidates
did not face any burden either since they were helped by family and in-laws
too. The other remaining 50% of them had to face such trouble due to having a nuclear family and thus their responsibilities
doubled since no one was there to be a
helping hand to them. Even after this, they stated that they didn’t face any
difficulty in performing any activity related to household and business. The
reason behind this, as noted by the researchers, is the support of their
respective husbands they received.


The respondents had increased
confidence and felt proud in being productive in the a economic growth of their respective families. The married women
were especially happy since somehow or other their small-scale business could help their husbands in some way. They
were also confident that their small effort of investing more hours for
business would also help their household chores such as childbearing, education, health, and other such relative things. On
the other hand, the other unmarried respondents were cheerful while replying
the queries about the positive effects of a job
in their household. They were happy to
report that their family and household life was improved and they were
ultimately happy to be living independent economic life. Their brothers or
sisters were also being supported with respect to education and health and
their families were able to respect financial assistance they were receiving
from these women. Moreover, they also reported that they were able to have
additional savings for emergency purposes.


4.7 Controlling attitude


Every possible business needs
investment for proper and structural growth. Since rural areas have low
earnings, it was much difficult to have an initiated business in Mastung
district. The crediting system was not much help
in that case either since it is impossible to get the benefit of it without any
proper resource. The micro financial system was also impossible for them to
manage since the interest rates are usually very high. Since Mastung is a poverty-stricken district, it was impossible to
get the benefit of any of the above-mentioned ways. And yet, respondents
managed to get economic assistance through various ways for the initiation of
their business and successfully have individual economic lives ahead. Out of
22, only 6 married women somehow managed to get the benefit of a micro-crediting system that was managed by
various organizations. Only one among those was able to have total control over
the money being credited to them whereas, others had only partial control since
their husbands controlled their money. The other 16 women who didn’t get the
financial assistance from organizations had to use the personal resource to be able to start the business successfully.


All the women had certain individual
ambitions, as they stated in the interview, which was to have independent
economic growth and have a better status
in the society, especially the ones whose husbands belonged to lower state of
work. Furthermore, they also cleared that their (86%) independence level extended
to taking full control over the decision power in the business. They had no
obstacles and hurdles or male dominance issues while they were having business
responsibilities. The remaining of them did notice the hurdles created due to
male dominance attitude in their families.


4.8 Initialization of new business


New business is a hard work and
requires enough resources and technics to have it on the ground. And the
situation becomes complicated when it comes to unanswered questions that arise while trying to open the business. For women,
it becomes twice as difficult to answer these queries and have a well-established
business, even though at very small scale. It largely happens due to cultural
barriers, fear to face failure and family responsibilities. But on the
contrary, if they receive enough support from their family members, these
obstacles that come between them and their business initialization would be
minimized and will help in boosting their confidence.


Similar questions were asked by the
interviewers to the respondents about their confidence over the business that
they successfully started with the support of their family members. Most women
were positive in their replies except 1 or 2 respondents since they felt like
having to go for monthly salary rather than compromising business. It was duly
noted that among all the candidates, only 3 unmarried women had difficulty in
starting their business because of some family disagreement or social and
cultural issue.


The respondents also held good words
of appreciation about the training quality and the facilities they provided.
They also received motivational classes that added a boost to their aim of accomplishing their desire to have a
well-established business for helping their family members and to earn economic
independence. And lastly, when they were asked about monthly income from their
respective business, their replies seemed to be self-satisfied. About 41% of
them earned 10 to 15 thousand per month whereas 18% were successful in getting
25 to 30 thousand per month net salary from their business. The only
disadvantage these women noticed was the low marketing skills that they had.
They weren’t able to speak freely with the customers because of the low confidence
level, and the customers also gave them less payment especially for the sewing
work they did.


4.9 Working on the Mastung project



The Mastung project was successfully
carried out and respondents didn’t have the slightest
complaint about the work of the
researchers. They noted that the education and training facilities provided by
the Mastung were better than they could
ever receive. Many of the respondents had direct contact with the project staff
and some of them had indirect contact with
their guardians or family members. The unique quality of training project
including practical was greatly able to help them in establishing their
personal small-scale business.


4.10 The project staff


The head of the Mastung and the
teaching staff were females since they could better understand it through the
perception of working females and guide the respondents better. Even the
community members, in their separate interview, stated their supportiveness
towards the Mastung project and noted that this project has greatly helped them
in hoping the growth of their small
district. The community also helped in providing the teaching staff to train
the respondents whenever there was need of it. There were several volunteers or
paid staff arranged for this purpose. The respective family members were also
asked to give the feedback over the entire scheme and they were confident about
the safety of their respective females because of the presence of female staff.
Some of them, however, were initially not happy about it since they didn’t want
their females to go out alone due to cultural norms.