Assessing Information Needs and User Satisfaction of Private University Libraries in Dhaka city
Md. Shahidul Islam
B. S. S., University of Rajshahi, 1997
M. S. S., University of Rajshahi, 2000
M. B. A (Mkt), Bangladesh Islami University, Dhaka, 2007
This thesis is submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Philosophy at the Faculty of Arts and Department of Information Science and Library Management, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dr. M. Nasiruddin Munshi
Department of Information Science & Library Management
University of Dhaka
President, Library Association of Bangladesh (LAB)
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SCIENCE & LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA, BANGLADESH
2. Importance of study
3. Objectives of the study
4. Scope of the Study
5. Hypothesis of the Study
6. Methodology of the Study
1.6.1 Study Area
1.6.2 Population and Sample
1.6.3 Data Collection Method
1.6.4 Data Analysis Method
Chapter-2(Two): Literature Review
Chapter-3(Three): Information Needs
3.2 Meaning and Definition of Information
3.3 Taxonomy of Information
3.4 Information Needs
3.5 Importance of Information
3.6 Status of the Library Information Users
3.7 Model of Information Seeking Behavior
3.7.1 Leckie??™s Model
3.7.2 Wilson??™s Model
3.7.3 Ellies??™s Model
3.7.4 Wilkinson??™s Model
Chapter-4(Four): User Satisfaction
Chapter 5(Five): Brief Overview of Higher Educational System in Bangladesh
Chapter 6(Six): Data Analysis and Discussion
6.1 Data Analysis
Chapter 7(Seven): Findings and Recommendations
The word ???library??™ has come from the Latin word ???Liber??™ or ???Libre???. A library is a social institution on the other hand we can say that a library is a store house of knowledge or key of knowledge.
According to Oxford Advanced Learner??™s Dictionary- ???Library is a building in which collections of books, CDs, newspapers, etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow (Oxford Advanced Learner??™s Dictionary,2005:884)???.
According to the Chambers Dictionary- ???A library is a collection of books; a building or room containing it; a publisher??™s series; also a collection of gramophone records, films, etc; a collection of computer programs (The Chambers Dictionary,2006:927)???.
In the present day, libraries have become multimedia due to adoption of new technological advances and innovation, and changing nature of their information storage, retrieval and services.
Rafiq and Amen (2009) said that Information-seeking behavior remains an important research area. Libraries and other information providers strive to understand users information needs and how they try to fulfill these needs. This understanding helps design and offer appropriate user-centered information systems/services. Bruce (2005) states that, “information plays a significant role in our daily professional and personal lives and we are constantly challenged to take charge of the information that we need for work, fun and everyday decisions and tasks.” In the digital era, research on information-seeking behavior has taken on even more importance worldwide
Information can be defined as ideas, facts, imaginative works of the mind and data of value potentially useful in decision making, question answering, problem solving etc. Information is simply an awareness of facts or organized data, which can lead a person to a state of knowing, where as knowledge is the transformed (applied or applicable) information assimilated by a person and used in appropriate situations.
The ultimate aim and function of any library, information system and or service is to meet the needs of a user. Simply stated a need can be defined as that which a human should have to function effectively. Thus general needs may be physiological, psychological, social, education and economic.
Most people are aware of the psychological studies and categorization of human needs by Abraham Maslow, which are physiological, safety, social belonging and love, esteem and self-actualization. The dynamic nature of these needs is such that one is motivated to achieve a higher level need mainly by the achievement of the lower need. In information terms, however, the difficulty in defining [information] needs is further compounded by the fact that information itself is an abstract concept.
There has been a long standing debate, particularly in the last thirty years about the understanding of the concepts of information, information need(s), assessment and identification of information need(s), and the satisfaction of information need(s). The process of seeking information and the degree to which the seeker satisfies needs depend upon the level of information literacy or information seeking, searching and use, knowledge and skills an individual possesses.
Generally need is defined as a gap between ???What is??? and ???What ought to be,??? and the needs assessment is a tool used to identify the gaps, and to help determine if the gaps or discrepancies can be solved through educational programming or training Lamble, Davis (2001).???
For Aherne, Lamble, and Davis (1998, p.9) the concept of need is one that is widely
used and poorly understood in adult and Continuing Education, and is the most ???deceptively complex, basically significant, and far reaching in its implications of all major terms in the vocabulary of the adult educator.??? Much of this confusion stems from the fact that needs differ from wants or demands.
For Altschuld and Witkins,(2001, p. 9) need has three levels, each with different audiences. Levels one and two will be discussed for the purpose of this discussion. Level one consists of those that directly benefit from services. These services have been developed through an educational program that resolves a high-priority need. Examples of these target groups are students, clients, patients and customers, ???Level two is composed of individuals or groups who deliver services to level one.??? Examples are teachers, social workers, counselors, health care professionals, librarians, policymakers, administrators, and others. Individuals that comprise level one are the primary reason for the existence of level two. Therefore, the initial needs assessment data collected from databases and sources should shed some light on the educational deficiencies faced by those that directly benefit from the service (level one) (Altschuld and Witkins, 2001, p. 8).
Whether or not an information need is readily recognized by either the information seeker himself/herself or the information expert or between the two of them, it requires appropriate information in order to be satisfied. Furthermore, the level of similar information need may differ between persons or groups of persons depending on a variety of factors or variables, like the demographic factors of education, age, social and economic background, or those that are resource based, namely, availability, awareness of availability, acquaintance with, and ease of use of resources.
It is the view of this author therefore that information needs assessment is at two levels. Firstly, at the conceptual level, namely, what to look for, which is specifically the behavior or pattern of information seeking and instances of need Secondly, the practical level, that is the actual data collection, analyzing and recording of these instances.
According to Taylor, information need has four levels:
1. The conscious and unconscious need for information not existing in the remembered experience of the investigator. In terms of the query range, this level might be called the ???ideal question??? ??” the question which would bring from the ideal system exactly what the inquirer, if he could state his need. It is the actual, but unexpressed, need for information
2. The conscious mental description of an ill-defined area of in decision. In this level, the inquirer might talk to someone else in the field to get an answer.
3. A researcher forms a rational statement of his question. This statement is a rational and unambiguous description of the inquirer??™s doubts.
4. The question as presented to the information system.
It must be noted, however, that needs change with time and therefore needs assessment just like community profiling must be conducted regularly.
A clear understanding of the concepts of information and information need is critical in further understanding, developing and or applying the various techniques of information needs assessment.
For the reason the user collect and analyze the information hoping that it will be used for organizational leaders to articulate the need and then collect the information
Defining the term of user satisfaction is very difficult. It is one of the most researched and talked about item. User satisfaction is not easy task as a variety of variables. User satisfaction depends of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information toward providing effective information services to user at a right time and right place i.e. Information Technology (IT), library collection, library services and staff are the library output. User satisfaction also depends on the output of the library that is provided to the user using the library input.
Senevirate, Daisy (2006) State that the user community is the most important component of a library. Every information service exists for the sole aim of satisfying its users. How well this purpose is served is a measure of the effectiveness of that information service. To provide an efficient service, any library should identify the specific community which needs its services as different users need not only different services, but also services at different levels. This identification is essential for the systematic development of the collection and the planning of suitable services for the effective utilization of the collection.
There seems to be no consensus about how many variables will be defining user satisfaction. It is assumed that introduction of changes and library inputs can lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction on the user. For example, organizational changes, library collection and introduction of information technology will lead to anxiety among the users, which is the variable of user satisfaction.
At present there are fifty three (53) private universities in Bangladesh. The provision of private university Act has been introduced through Private University Act 1992 duly amended in1998. With the passage of time the population of Bangladesh has been growing faster. Consequently the university going students have also been growing enormously. The growth of public universities can not keep pace with the growth of university going students.
To bridge up this gap the Government of People??™s Republic of Bangladesh passed the Private University Act in 1992; where a person or a group of persons, Foundation, Trust etc were allowed to set up and run a private university. Accordingly the private universities have been established as a non profitable organization. Normally the private university can provide limited scope to the students compared to the public universities.
Library is an important part of a university to provide relatively better facilities for quality education. A library is opened at the timed of university started. Library resources, materials and services are depend according to the users, faculty members and number of students. It is seems that most of the private university libraries??™ collection are not adequate to meet the user needs and satisfaction. It is also run by some non-professionals and semiprofessional personnel. But these libraries require professional personnel to operate it and to ensure its proper service. As a result the library users have been deprived of having the proper library facilities. The library users are trying to remove from this situation but can not achieve the goal for the ignoring of the university authority. The University Grand Commission of Bangladesh, a regulatory organ to supervise and regulate all the private universities of Bangladesh felt this situation and advice to the university authority to enrich their library collection. The government of Bangladesh is also feeling the necessity to increase the library resources. On the other hand there are no hard and fast government rules and regulation about library collection e.i. how many volumes and how many types of books are required for a particular university library to satisfy the need of information of the users. After above analysis I have made an attempt to assess the information needs and user satisfaction of Private University Libraries in Dhaka City.
Chapter-2(Two): Literature Review
As the idea of information needs and user satisfaction are not very recent. Adequate knowledge to identify the users??™ needs and satisfaction label is very much necessary for libraries in re-orienting their resources, services and activities to synchronize it. Banda (1993) noted that ???if the library is not to provide any meaningful information service, the user (information seeking) habits should be taken into consideration.??? Assessment of information needs and use satisfaction is a very interesting scientific and up to date concept in the world. A lot of studies have been conducted on identifying or measuring information needs or users??™ information seeking behavior and satisfaction in UK, USA, Nigeria, Pakistan, India, China, Japan, Thailand, and Bangladesh also all over the world in the different context. Here are mentioned the following overview of work which are very much near to the aims and objectives of this study i.e.
Seneviratne (2005) conducted a research paper on ???Measuring user satisfaction: a case study at the PGlM Branch Library at Peradeniya???. In this paper he tried to discuss about the library resources and satisfaction of the users. This paper he discussed the results of a user satisfaction survey as a guide to improve the collection and services of a library. The purpose of the library survey conducted in 2005 was to evaluate satisfaction of users over currently available resources; service quality and assess future information needs of the users of PGlM Branch Library at Peradeniya. The questionnaire was distributed among a random sample of 120 users and 74 responded. Most respondents were somewhat or very satisfied with overall library services and staff performance; moderately satisfied with the print collection; and least satisfied with space and ventilation; lack of study areas and the noisy environment. The helpfulness of the staff was rated the best. Based on the findings, several steps were taken to modify or change collection development, services and customer care. The more grieving problems that are still to be answered by the authorities were forwarded for their attention. Survey led to more intimate analyzing of the strengths and weaknesses of the library and it was illustrated that such studies are needed in regular intervals for improvement.
Marlow (2006), studied on ???Assessing the Information Needs of Administrative Assistants in a Non-Profit Research Institution of Emporia State University???. In this research paper he mentioned that while the time period for completion of the needs assessment was short, the overall assessment proved useful in collecting information on improvements to library services. The assessment also assisted in answering some questions and addressing concerns from both the library staff and the administrative assistants??™ perspectives. The information collected from the focus group is only the first section in an ongoing process to update current library practices. Addition information will be needed to address other areas of library support at the research institution.
Donovan, and Tosaka (2003), conducted a research on ???Report on the Information Needs Assessment of the Japanese Collections at The Ohio State University??? In this research they found out that the Ohio State University Japanese Collections, part of the Language and Area Studies Department within the Main Library Research and Reference Services, is managed by the staff of one professional librarian and a group of student assistants. The librarian provides instructional and reference support for nearly 30 faculty members, selects and acquires both Japanese and English-language materials on Japan, and helps to process those materials for public access. One of the primary public services has been the librarian??™s participation in team teaching of Japanese 800: Japanese Bibliography and Research Methods, a graduate course offered annually in the Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures. The librarian has also consulted regularly with individual faculty members about their research and teaching needs since they first arrived on campus, and has informed the faculty on new research sources and databases through e-mail messages and library liaison and committee systems. Another major current program has been a grant-funded cooperative project known as Portal to Asian Internet Resources, which has selected, cataloged, and annotated high-quality online resources on Asian studies. The Japanese studies librarian at Ohio State University has been responsible for evaluating and organizing Japan-related web sites.
This study was proposed by Maureen Donovan, Japanese studies librarian, and Yuji Tosaka, Kent State library science practicum student, to conduct formal information needs assessment in light of multiple transitions facing users of the Japanese Collections. Major issues included the renovation of the Main Library and the temporary relocation of the library holdings to a former factory two miles away from the present location, the increasing location of library materials to the remote book depository, and the cancellation of many journal subscriptions. In particular, the study was intended to identify the impact
STEVEHILLER (2003), conducted a research on ???Assessing User Needs, Satisfaction, and Library Performance at the University of Washington Libraries???. He mentioned in the paper that; THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES triennial OF WASHINGTON HAS CONDUCTED faculty and student library surveys since 1992. Surveys are sent to all faculties and a random sample of graduate and undergraduate students. Results have revealed significant variation within and between user groups concerning library satisfaction, use, priorities, and importance. There were 2,749 responses to the most recent survey in 1998, including more than 1,500 completed surveys returned from faculty. These large-scale surveys, while extraordinarily valuable, have proven costly and time-consuming to design, administer, and analyze. The ARL LibQUAL+ pilot offered an opportunity to employ a different methodology and design that focused on quality of service and library support through a Web-based survey. This article discusses issues and results associated with these different approaches.
Xiao and Dasgupta (2009), mentioned in the following research paper ???MEASUREMENT OF USER SATISFACTION WITH WEB-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY, George Washington University??? that advances in new information technology and the drastic growth of the Internet over the past decade have considerably changed the end-user computing environment. Therefore, it is appropriate to review the measures of user satisfaction with information systems technology, especially in a web-based environment, which accounts for a major component of the end-user computing environment. The objective of this research was to develop and validate an instrument for measuring user satisfaction in a web-based environment. Doll and
Torkzadeh (1988) developed an instrument that measured user satisfaction with information systems. This research tested the validity and reliability of the End-user Computing Satisfaction (EUCS) instrument on users of Internet portals. We found that a revised instrument with some changes to the EUCS
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the present study are
1. To assess information needs and user satisfaction of Private University Libraries in Dhaka City;
2. To identify the problems faced by the readers in exploiting the benefits of library resources and services;
3. To assess the status of the Private University Libraries of Bangladesh in Dhaka City and their capability of adopting Information Technology (IT) to fulfill users need and satisfaction;
4. To evaluate the various existing services in respect of their utility to readers to effect suitable modification and introduction of new services;
5. To suggest means to overcome the existing problems and to improve the situation for the benefit of the users;
The hypothesis are noted below
1. The readers of the private university libraries face many problems in getting the benefits of library resources and services;
2. There is enough scope of overcoming the existing problems of the university libraries of Bangladesh;
3. Most of the private university libraries of Bangladesh have not adopted ITs in their day to day library and information related activities although IT is helpful to fulfill users satisfaction;
4. There is need of development of the technical skill of the manpower engaged in private university libraries of Bangladesh to make them able to handle IT related activities;
Study area is all private universities in Bangladesh. The university library varies from one to another on the basis of organizational setup, size and working environment
POPULATION AND SAMPLE:
At present, there are 53 (Fifty three) Private universities in Bangladesh in which maximum number of universities are situated at Dhaka city. The sample will consist of the following library user relating in North-South University (NSU), East-West University (EWU) and BRAC University.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS:
A structured questionnaire will be designed to collect primary data; a face to face interview will be conducted with various types of library users to find out their experience about information needs and satisfaction. The data also will be collected through secondary sources.
DATA ANALYSIS METHOD:
The collected data will be tabulated and analyze by using the suitable statistical packages. The statistical analysis will be done accordingly along with the graphical representation of data.
7. Importance of study
8. Review of related literature
9. Objectives of the study
10. Organization of the study
Chapter-2: Profile of the selected private university libraries
Chapter-3: Data and Methodology
3.2 Methodology used in study
3.3 Data used in study
3.4 Population and sample
Chapter-4: Analysis of data and Discussion of Result
4.1 Analysis and Discussion
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Concluding remarks
5.2 Policy implication & Recommendation
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3. Seneviratne, Daisy??™ 2005, ???Measuring user satisfaction: a case study at
the PGlM Branch Library at Peradeniya???. Posted online, March 10, 2009
4. Marlow, Catherine E. 2006, ???Assessing the Information Needs of Administrative Assistants in a Non-Profit Research Institution of Emporia State University???. Posted online, March 15, 2009;
5. Donovan, Maureen and Tosaka, Yuji, 2003, ???Report on the Information
Needs Assessment of the Japanese Collections at the Ohio State University???. Posted online, March 15, 2009
6. STEVEHILLER, 2003, ???Assessing User Needs, Satisfaction, and Library
Performance at the University of Washington Libraries??? Posted online,
March 20, 2009
7. Xiao, Li and Dasgupta, Subhasish, 2009, ???MEASUREMENT OF USER
SATISFACTION WITH WEB-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN
EMPIRICAL STUDY, George Washington University??? Posted online,
March 25, 2009
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(MD. SHAHIDUL ISLAM)
MBA (Mkt), B. S. S (Hons), M. S. S
Library and Information Science