INTELSATreacted by claiming that Tongasat’s actions amounted to financial speculationin the GSO, in violation of the ITU Regulations.iColumbia Communications filed a petition with the Federal CommunicationsCommission requesting that applications for landing rightsiito any company using Tonga’s slots be denied.iiiColumbia claimed that Tonga was violating a fundamental principle of orbitalresource allocation, in the sense that no entity or nation may lay claim to theorbit/spectrum resource as a commodity that can be warehoused or traded. Whatis interesting to observe is that Tonga never denied its plans to lease or sellits slots in the future, arguing that once the ITU accepted its request, theissue was closed, and that it is Colombia that is acting in an anticompetitivemanner.

ivConsequently, Columbia insisted that the issue be raised at the 1995 WorldRadio Conferencev,however, the only result that the ITU reached was to approve a plan whereby theITU staff reviewed the procedures and report on slot allocations by 1997. InMarch 1996 Tonga made public its intentions to lease its remaining slots.viiIbid.,p.

281.ii Landing rights arepermissions that operators must obtain for their satellite to be used in aparticular State. See Landing Rights Resurfacing in Europe, Satellite Today,November 1, 2006,

com/telecom/2006/11/01/landing-rights-resurfacing-in-europe/>.iiiColumbia Asks FCC to DenyU.S. Markets to Users of Tonga’s Orbital Slots, Aug. 30, 1993,1993 WL 2612482.

ivSATELLITEWK., Nov. 1,1993, 1993 WL 2610094.v World RadiocommunicationConferences (WRC) are held every three to four years. During these conferences,the ITU Member States review, and, if necessary, revise the Radio Regulations,the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum andthe geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits.

Theserevisions are made on the basis of an ITU Council determined agenda, whichtakes into account recommendations made by previous WRCs. SeeRadiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)

asp?category=conferences=wrc=en>. viSATELLITEWK., Mar.18, 1996, 1996 WL 7054518.