ABG’s (pH/HCO3): Arterial Blood Gases are measured to evaluate lung function by measuring blood pH levels, and blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. The ABG measurements also detect an acid-base imbalance in blood, which may indicate a metabolic disorder, such as diabetes. Normal values will vary from lab to lab, depending on elevation above sea level, as blood oxygen lowers as elevation increases. Results from ABG analysis are not diagnostic, they should be used in combination with the results of other tests and exams to evaluate someone for a respiratory, metabolic, or kidney disorder. Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a lower pH and decreased HCO3, causing the blood to be too acidic for proper metabolic and kidney function. Causes of metabolic acidosis include diabetes, shock, and renal failure. Metabolic acidosis values for pH is less than 7.35, normal values for HCO3 is 14 mmol/l. Common causes of metabolic acidosis: diabetic ketoacidosis, shock, kidney failure. Normal values for pH is 7.38 – 7.42, normal values for HCO3 is 22-28 mmol/l. (***** Jill to reference) Blood serum glucose tests, A1C:  Blood glucose: a blood sample is taken from a vein. High levels of blood glucose (>7.0 mmol/l) would indicate diabetes. In a person with signs and symptoms of diabetes or hyperglycemia, a non-fasting blood serum glucose level that exceeds 11.1 mmol/l indicates diabetes. Some drugs can increase blood glucose levels, such as corticosteroids, tricyclic antidepressants, birth control pills, and epinephrine. 40.5 mmol/l is definitely considered hyperglycemia in a diabetic. A1c: Hemoglobin A1c, or glycated hemoglobin, is a test used to identify patients at risk of developing diabetes, to help diagnose diabetes, and to monitor and manage a client’s diabetes. A1c is frequently used to determine how elevated a client’s blood glucose has been over the past 2-3 months. The test may be ordered several times while control of diabetes is being reached, and then at least twice a year to ensure that good control of the diabetes is being maintained. In screening and diagnosis, non-diabetics results will be less than 5.79% (39 mmol/l), while a diabetic will have a level of 6.5% (48 mmol/l) or higher. (***** Jill to reference)