3- Research Questions
The United Nations was established
to protect collective security and peace in the international system after the
Second World War. However, when it was just established, a cold war, a new war,
has begun, despite the defeat of a dangerous enemy like fascism. While the
United Nations is working to protect peace and security, the Cold War has
become a challenge to this burden. The bipolar world system has made it more
difficult for the United Nations to prove that it is different from the League
of Nations and fulfills its function.
The Korean War is the first hot
battleground of the Cold War era. Although the war began between North and
South Korea, many members of the United Nations, China, Russia, and the United
States were involved in the war. These problems among members of the United
Nations caused protesters and boycotts at the United Nations Security Council.
However, the UN has taken resolutions on resolving the issue.
The aim of the work is to analyze
the role of the United Nations in the Cold War era, the decisions it makes and
the way it applies these decisions. It is also another purpose for which
policies in the framework of collective security and peace concepts give rise
to consequences. Finally, these policies and their results have been evaluated
in terms of world agenda, collective security and finally contribution to world
peace. The case we have chosen to study the United Nations’ movements during
the cold war period is the Korean War. The decisions taken over this war and
the applications made have been examined.
When doing this research, we
reach the question by asking certain questions. Our main question is “What
was the role/ position/ resolution during the Korean War in the framework of
peacemaking and restoring security?”. However, we need to know the
process to be able to answer the main question.
Firstly, “What is the Korean war?”
The Korean War was that took
place between North Korea and South Korea in 1950-1953. This conflict, which
broke out in the early years of the Cold War, gained an international
dimension. The war continued with the mutual attacks of the parties, but they
did not excel each other. As a result of the Second World War, Japan was drawn
from the Korean territory. On top of this, South Korea has declared an American
model democratic state. North Korea has established a socialist state like
China and Russia.
The United Nations has struggled
to unite the two regions but has not achieved success. Parallel to the 38th
parallel was determined and it was tried to be protected. The North Korean
government has acted aggressively over time. The later attacked South Korea by
violating the border. Because of Russia and China supporting the military
action, America has disturbed. The United States, which carries the situation
to the United Nations, demanded that action be taken on the issue. The United
Nations Security Council has warned North Korea to withdraw from the border and
to stop the military action. However, North Korea has not withdrawn or even
continued to clash.
Finally, the United Nations, with
the insistence of America, has decided to intervene to protect the collective
security. Russia was disturbed that China was not included in the vote and
Russia boycotted it, so he did not vote either. Since he did not participate in
the vote, he was not entitled to a veto and the decision on military
intervention was approved. A United Nations force dominated by the American
army was created and North Korea was drawn to its border. The American military
commander, on his own initiative, underestimated North Korea and entered the
North, but in response, China was involved in the war and American troops were
defeated. In order for the war not to go beyond the territory of Korea and to
avoid a new global war, both sides finally decided peace.
Secondly, “What did the United Nations do about the
By examining what the United
Nations did before, during and after the war, they first tried to unite North
and South Korea. This policy did not succeed because both of them wanted a
country under their sovereignty about unification. Later, North Korea,
aggressively acting, was officially warned three times by the United Nations.
In fact, the United Nations Security Council on this issue has prepared three
separate resolutions. With the military action of North Korea, it decided to
prepare the UN military unit and 19 different countries under the leadership of
the United States tried to protect collective security and peace for the United
Nations. The UN spent the greatest effort to prevent the Korean War from
returning to a new world war. Later in the war, the United Nations encouraged
both groups to make peace and mediated during the negotiations.
Thirdly, “Why did the United Nations participate in
the Korean War and what were the consequences?”
the UN has tried to prevent all elements that could lead to the destruction of
world’s collective security. She tried to balance the world system that the
cold war damaged. She tried to prevent the globalization of the regional war.
Also she tried to prevent the communist governments from dominating the region
and domino theory.