3- Research QuestionsThe United Nations was establishedto protect collective security and peace in the international system after theSecond World War. However, when it was just established, a cold war, a new war,has begun, despite the defeat of a dangerous enemy like fascism. While theUnited Nations is working to protect peace and security, the Cold War hasbecome a challenge to this burden. The bipolar world system has made it moredifficult for the United Nations to prove that it is different from the Leagueof Nations and fulfills its function. The Korean War is the first hotbattleground of the Cold War era.
Although the war began between North andSouth Korea, many members of the United Nations, China, Russia, and the UnitedStates were involved in the war. These problems among members of the UnitedNations caused protesters and boycotts at the United Nations Security Council.However, the UN has taken resolutions on resolving the issue. The aim of the work is to analyzethe role of the United Nations in the Cold War era, the decisions it makes andthe way it applies these decisions. It is also another purpose for whichpolicies in the framework of collective security and peace concepts give riseto consequences. Finally, these policies and their results have been evaluatedin terms of world agenda, collective security and finally contribution to worldpeace. The case we have chosen to study the United Nations’ movements duringthe cold war period is the Korean War.
The decisions taken over this war andthe applications made have been examined. When doing this research, wereach the question by asking certain questions. Our main question is “Whatwas the role/ position/ resolution during the Korean War in the framework ofpeacemaking and restoring security?”. However, we need to know theprocess to be able to answer the main question. Firstly, “What is the Korean war?”The Korean War was that tookplace between North Korea and South Korea in 1950-1953. This conflict, whichbroke out in the early years of the Cold War, gained an internationaldimension. The war continued with the mutual attacks of the parties, but theydid not excel each other.
As a result of the Second World War, Japan was drawnfrom the Korean territory. On top of this, South Korea has declared an Americanmodel democratic state. North Korea has established a socialist state likeChina and Russia. The United Nations has struggledto unite the two regions but has not achieved success. Parallel to the 38thparallel was determined and it was tried to be protected. The North Koreangovernment has acted aggressively over time. The later attacked South Korea byviolating the border.
Because of Russia and China supporting the militaryaction, America has disturbed. The United States, which carries the situationto the United Nations, demanded that action be taken on the issue. The UnitedNations Security Council has warned North Korea to withdraw from the border andto stop the military action. However, North Korea has not withdrawn or evencontinued to clash. Finally, the United Nations, withthe insistence of America, has decided to intervene to protect the collectivesecurity. Russia was disturbed that China was not included in the vote andRussia boycotted it, so he did not vote either.
Since he did not participate inthe vote, he was not entitled to a veto and the decision on militaryintervention was approved. A United Nations force dominated by the Americanarmy was created and North Korea was drawn to its border. The American militarycommander, on his own initiative, underestimated North Korea and entered theNorth, but in response, China was involved in the war and American troops weredefeated.
In order for the war not to go beyond the territory of Korea and toavoid a new global war, both sides finally decided peace. Secondly, “What did the United Nations do about theKorean war?”By examining what the UnitedNations did before, during and after the war, they first tried to unite Northand South Korea. This policy did not succeed because both of them wanted acountry under their sovereignty about unification. Later, North Korea,aggressively acting, was officially warned three times by the United Nations.In fact, the United Nations Security Council on this issue has prepared threeseparate resolutions. With the military action of North Korea, it decided toprepare the UN military unit and 19 different countries under the leadership ofthe United States tried to protect collective security and peace for the UnitedNations.
The UN spent the greatest effort to prevent the Korean War fromreturning to a new world war. Later in the war, the United Nations encouragedboth groups to make peace and mediated during the negotiations. Thirdly, “Why did the United Nations participate inthe Korean War and what were the consequences?” First,the UN has tried to prevent all elements that could lead to the destruction ofworld’s collective security. She tried to balance the world system that thecold war damaged. She tried to prevent the globalization of the regional war.Also she tried to prevent the communist governments from dominating the regionand domino theory.