1a. developed into haploid cells from the secondary

1a. In the ovary there are 6
stages that involves in the production of at egg.

The first stage in the diagram shows the
primary follicle which contains the primary oocyte. In this stage the first
meiotic division occurs but arrest immediately into prophase one of meiosis. These
continue to develop and form epithelial cells around the primary oocyte


The second stage shows the development of the
primary follicle into the secondary follicle. The secondary follicle is larger
and has more cells than the primary follicle. There is also pools of follicular
fluid surrounded the oocyte.


The third stage shows the development of the
graafian follicle. In the graafian follicle the first meiotic division is
completed and the oocyte is now formed which then starts its second meiotic


The forth stage shows the ovulation stage in
which the oocyte(egg) is released into the fallopian tube for fertilization


In the fifth stage after the egg has been
released the ruptured follicle is then filled with blood cloths which forms the
corpus luteum which releases hormones into the ovary.



In the seminiferous tubule there are 5 stages in the
formation of the sperm cells.

2a. The first stage shows the
formation of the spermatogonia it is located on the outside of the seminiferous
tubule which divides mitotically, which produces more spermatocytes and primary

The second stage shows the primary spermatocytes
in which the first meiotic division occurs.


The third stage shows the secondary
spermatocytes which arrives from the first meiotic division. In this stage the
cells have a short life which ends in the second meiotic division.


In the forth stage the spermatids are developed
into haploid cells from the secondary meiotic stage. These cells are connected
together with the cytoplasmic bridge so the cytokinesis can occur.


In the final stage the spermatids mature into sperm
cells which enters the vast deference then to the ejaculation duct for the
fertilization of an egg when a man is excited during sexual intercourse.









Relative tail length, description

The tail of the bull sperm is long but
is shorter than the rat sperm.

The tail of the human sperm cell is
shorter compared to the bull and rat sperm cells

The tail of the rat sperm is the
longer than the human and bull sperm

Relative head size, description

The head size is bigger than the two
other sperm cells.

The sperm head sixe is bigger than the
rat but smaller than the bull sperm.

The head of the rat sperm is the
smallest of the other 2 sperms that is observed.

Head shape

The head shape of the sperm cell is
similar shape of the humans cells

The shape of the sperms head is bigger
than the rat sperm and a pointed head.

The shape of the sperm head  is curved

Any other observations

There was less bull sperms in on the

There is more human sperm cells on the

There was less rat sperms in on the



b. All sperm cells are in fact similar or the same to each
other because

1. They have the same features



Three ways sperm cells are different from each other are

1.They have different length of tail

2.They have different head shape




 4a. Sperms are small
and mobile because of its long tail that enables the cell to propel its way to
the    fallopian tube to fertilize the
egg. The presence of the mitochondrion in the cell also helps the sperm to move
efficiently to reach the egg. Whereas eggs are large and immobile because there
is no mitochondrion to create any energy for its movement, so the cell is moved
by the help of the cilia and the fluids present in the fallopian tube.


b. Men produce many sperm cells because sperm cells compete
with each other to fertilized the ovum. The sperms face many challenges wile to
get to the ovum so that’s why there are millions of sperm that fights to
fertilize the egg. Whereas less are produced by females because a female is
born with the number of eggs she ovulates once a month once she reaches puberty


c. The functions of the of parts of the sperm cell is listed
as follows:

– The Tail is used to propel the sperm cell alone the
fallopian tube

– The mitochondrion generates energy so that the sperm can
swim to do it job efficiently.

– The head also aids in the ability of the sperm cell swim
due to it sharp head and also contains   
and also performs genetic and activation functions.

– The acrosomes which is located in the head of the sperm carries
genetic information and also contains enzymes that helps in breaking down the
outer coating of the egg for fertilization.

d. The role of the follicle cells is to keep the egg
nourished and to provide a favourable environment prior to the egg being release
into the fallopian tube during ovulation. The follicle cells also release(FSH)
follicle stimulating hormones which spends chemical messages to the brain and
helps in regulating the reproductive system. There is a large amount of
cytoplasm in the egg because it contains nutrients in order to sustain the egg.
It also contains the waste materials from cell metabolism and aids in the
development of the fertilized egg.