??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????. ???? ????? ???????????

??????? 1:
? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? 7 ????: ??????,
????????, ????????, ???????????, ????????????, ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????.
  ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????
???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????????
??????????? ??? ??????? (??? ????? ??? ????????????, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???
????????? ??? ??????) ???? ?????????/ ????????. ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????-??????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?
????????? ??? ??????.
  ? ????????
????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???
?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???
???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?? ?????????????
??????????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ???
?????????? ??? ??????.
  ???? ??????? ??? ????????????, ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???
???????? ??? ???? ?????????. ???? ????????????, ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????
??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????
??? ???????????????? (???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????????/ ????????). ?? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????
????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????,
???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????????.
  ???? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ???
???????. ??????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?
????????????? ?? ?? ????????????. ???? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???
?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????. ??????, ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???
?????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???
????????? ?????????? ??????.
  ?????, ? ????????????? ?????, ?????????
???? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????, ???????? ??? ??????? ???
?????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????
??? ?????????? APA.

??????? 2:
  ?????? ??? ???????, ????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??? ???????????, ?
??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????. ???? ?????
?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????
??????, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????
?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????.

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??????? 3:
?? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? (2009), ?????
?????:
1. ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????????/ ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????
?? ??? ??????????, ??? ???? ???????????????/ ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??
?? ??????????.
2. ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???
?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ? ?????????.
?????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???
????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?
?????????.
3. ? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????
??????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????.

??????? 4:
   ???????
?? ?? ?????, ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???: 120 ?????????? (80
?????? ??? 50 ????????), ??? ???? ??????? ?? 62 ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??
????? 57 ????????. ? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? 34,5 ?????? ??? ? ?????
???? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? 11,52 ??????. ?????? ?
????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? 9,65 ??????. ? ?????????? ???
????????????? ???? ??????? (76,5%) ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????????
(61%). ??? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? 120 ????????????? ?????? ???
????????: 23 ????? ??????? ?????????? (?? ??? ?????? ?? 19 ???? ??????????
????????? ??? ?? ????? 4 ?????????), 46 ????? ???? ???, 16 ????????????, 11
?????????? ??? 5 ?????????. ?????, 13 ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????????. ???
????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????????????? ????
???????? ??? ????? ????????.

??????? 5:
???????????????? 4 ???????? ????????:
1. ??????? ?????????? ??????, ??????
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? (self-report data) ???????? ???????? ??????.
???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????
???????? ?? ??????????????.  (Gorush, Spielberger & Lushan, 1970).
2. ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????,
?????? ???????? ???????? ????? , ?????????????? ??? ??????????? (Singlish, 1994).
3. ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????????
??????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????????/ ??? ?????????????? ???? ??
?????????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ????. ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????????
??? ?????????, ??? ?????????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? (Radloff, 1977).
4. ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????????, ??????
??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????, ???
?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????
????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????, ??? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????
???. (Berry
et al., 2006).

??????? 6:
  ????? ??? ?????????, ?? ?????????
????????? ?? ????????????. ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????????? ??
?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????,
????????? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????????. ?????????, ? ?????????? ????
?????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???
??? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ? ??? ?????????. ????????????
,??????, ???  ?????????? ?? ????? ???????
??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???
??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ??????.

??????? 7:
  ??????? ?? ???? ?????????, ? ??????
??????????? ??????? ?????????. ????????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????
??? ??? ???????????????, ???????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???
???????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ???
?? ?????????????. ?????, ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????????????
?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? Likert ????????? ????????????? ?????????.

??????? 8:
  ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????
??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???
??????????· ?? ? ??????????? ??????????
??? “??????” ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????
?????????.
  ????????????, ??????? ?? ?? ?????, ??
?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????
??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ?.?. ????? ???????, ?????
????????, ?????????? ????? ???.
?????, ?? ?????? ??? ????????? (2009), ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????
??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????.

??????? 9:
  ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?????
?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????????
??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???
????????? ??????. ?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ????? ??????
??? ??????.

??????? 10:
????? ??? ?????????? APA,
?? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????:
??????, ?. & ?????????, ?. (2009). ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????
???? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????: ?? ?????????? ????
?????? ?????. ???????? ??????????
???????, Vol 16 (No 3), ??. 302-320.