1. Effect of sleep patterns and disturbed sleep

Hannah G. Lund, B.A.a, Brian D.
Reider, B.A.b, Annie B. Whiting, R.N.c, and J. Roxanne
Prichard, Ph.Db,* (2009). Sleep and Distress: examining sleeping
patterns and causes of disturbed sleep in college students. Department of Psychology & Massachusetts
General Hospital. Received: 26.03.2009.

2.    Effect
of sleep patterns and disturbed sleep in the college students population.

3.    It was
a correlational study.

4.    The
variables involved were: sleep patterns, physical and mental health, study
& mood disturbance.

5.    The
variables thought to be predictive are sleep quality, mood and health.

6.    The
variables thought to be predicted are sleep disturbance and academic stress.

7.    The hypothesis
was that sleep patterns would predict sleep disturbance and other things like mood
and health of a person.

8.    The
participants were 420 male and 705 females (n= 1,125) students between the age
of 17 and 24 at bigger private university. The mean age was 20 in which
freshmen and sophomores were 27% each, 20% seniors and 24% juniors, out of
total 86% of participants were Caucasian.

9.    The
Materials used were as follows:(a) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) compares
poor and good quality sleepers by measuring seven different areas, scoring was
based on a Likert scale. Scores were split into three categories: optimal (<=5), borderline (6-7) and poor (>=8). The global score more than 5 is indicative
of poor quality-sleeper and score of 5 or less is indicative of good-quality.
(b) the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a questionnaire used identify
excessive sleepiness, scores range between 0 to 24 in which score over 10
indicate significant levels of daytime sleepiness. The online study also
include other three scales related to sleep, mood and stress named  the Horne-Ostburg Morningness Eveningness
Scale (MES),  the Subjective Units of
Distress Scale (SUDS) and the Profile of Mood Stage(POMS). In addition to these
scales questions related to academic performance, health and psychoactive drug
use were also to participants.

10. An
e-mail was sent to all the participants and they were asked to complete and
return the survey. Respondents older than 24 were excluded.

11. Disturbed
sleep was noticed in students. Only 40% were categorized as good sleepers by
PSQI; bedtime and risetime got delayed on weekends. Students were taking
prescriptions and drugs to alter sleep. More problems with physical and psychological
health were observed in poor sleepers.

12. Although
this study demonstrates the effect of poor sleep in college students, but still
there are some factors which cannot be ignored, like there is a possibility that
study may have been done in a busy city where poor sleep is a common thing for people.
Moreover survey is done only a single time and value can vary during second survey
depending on different possible reasons.