06-91-302 the first system which will increase productivity.

Health, Safety and Human Factors (HSHF)  Semester:
Winter 2018


of Engineering, University of Windsor, Canada

of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering (MAME)

Industrial and
Manufacturing Systems Engineering (IMSE)

Serial #

Student Number

Last Name

First name





# 1:

Ergonomics & Anthropometric Data

                                                        Due Date: 23 January 2018


Question 1:


(Part A):


Posture is the position in which the body and limbs when standing,
sitting or lying down. Good Posture is the way that puts the minimal strain on
the back and the joints on the whole body whatever a person is doing, so no one
joints is overstrained. The importance of good posture can be summarized into
one part which is health, and two examples out of many are deliberated here. First,
Breathing will become deeper and easier and as result the brain will get more
Oxygen then the body will function much better. Another fact that good
breathing reliefs tension which how most people would feel after long day of
working in a work station. Second, it Improves digestion system and circulation
in such a way that proper posture will not compress the body internal organs and
that will lead to so many benefits; for instance, blood flow, acid flow…etc.






(Part B):

There are 11 organ systems human body is comprised of that work with
each other. All of them are necessary and each one of them complement the
other. Thus, if one of them is not functioning well; another organ system will
get affected. The most important system that play a serious role in the body is
the skeletal system, and once a good posture is applied skeletal system will be
the first system which will increase productivity. Standing or Sitting with your
shoulders to the back and your head up straight will help you avoid back pain
and progress your physical safety, but also make you better at your job. A
person will gain from investing in improving posture greaer efficiency through
improved morale, higher productivity, and less absenteeism. Through the time, authorised
global reports and records regarding work station disorder have itemized Musculo-skeletal
disorders (MSDs) as the leading reason of workplace absence, which, back pain
is particularly the main part. For instance, this quotation from the European
agency documented back in 2007 for health and safety at work: “Musculoskeletal
issues (MSDs) are the maximum common work-related health hassle in Europe,
affecting hundreds of thousands of people” (De Broeck, 2010). throughout the
EU27, 23% report muscular pains and 25% of employees complain of backache. MSDs
are induced especially by means of heavy physical paintings, manual handling,
awkward and static postures, repetition of vibration and moves. “The chance of
MSDs can growth with the pace of work, low job satisfaction, high job needs,
job stress and working in cold environments. MSDs are the biggest purpose of
absence from work in practically all Member States. In a few states, MSDs
account for 40% of the charges of workers’ compensation, and cause a reduction
of up to at least one.6% in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the U.S.A.
itself. MSDs reduce businesses’ profitability and add to the social expenses of
governments.” (De Broeck, 2010).

These reports are
extensively steady with earlier United Kingdom figures and indicate a
long-status trend, as an example in 2001-2002 approximately 10 million days had
been lost via work-related Musculo-skeletal absence, with an average absence of
approximately 20 days per case per 12 months. Over the identical duration there
have been c.28 million people in employment, so the lost days amounted to
zero.2% of the days available for work. the days lost concerned simply over 2.2
people in keeping with one hundred. To reiterate the point made inside the
introduction, these statistics do no longer display that the actual loss to
businesses. the overall loss isn’t always just the work-associated absenteeism,
it is also the inefficiency of individuals who ‘grin and bear’ their pain, and
the inevitable poor outcomes on productivity and high-quality because of
absence and illness-associated work disruption. At some point of the duration
(frequently weeks and months) before time is taken off work due to pain, a
person can be working with ever-decreasing performance. consequences (August
2004 – from the writer’s work) from a sample of approximately two hundred
people in numerous companies show that 70% of people in places of work suffered
Musculo-skeletal troubles. approximately one third respondents had low degree
soreness, however almost one fifth of people record ‘moderate’ pain. it is the
latter who also mentioned decreased performance. This reduction in
effectiveness means that, on average, for every One Hundred people being paid
an employer might be accomplishing ninety-four employees’ worth of work.
Leaving those employees to suffer in silence has a price. Taking measures to
reduce pain and soreness because of poor posture is mostly an extensive
possibility to increase performance, morale and working conditions, requiring a
lot lower funding in comparison to many different performance initiatives (De
Broeck, 2010). Finally, Skeletal System is found to be the most system that can
get affected by posture, and by improving your posture your skeletal system
will support other component of your body that may get hurt at one day of your
life. Skeletal System helps to reduce the stress on the joints due to the
unbalanced body weight and the tension of the gravity. In the long term, the
shape of the body will change to the worse and most likely the human spines
will be slouch hence they might get dislocated therefore surgeries will be
considered (Elmaraghy, 2018).      


Question 2:




Ergonomic design of the office workstation requires some anthropometric
data. The physical design of workstations has an exquisite effect
at the work of employees. proper placement and layout of computer device and
other workplace items, with a purpose to avoid injury chance factors, is an
goal of ergonomics, requirements and directives. it can additionally increase
productiveness, enhance health and safety, increase job satisfaction, increase
work quality, lower employee turnover, decrease lost time at work and decrease
worker’s compensations claims. For ergonomic concepts of efficiently designed
workstations, international standards institution ISO 9241 Ergonomic
requirements for office work with visible display terminals (VDTs) are
used.  For dimensions of office
furniture, it is encouraged to apply European standards EN 527-1; office
furniture-work tables and desks: dimension and EN 1335-1; workplace
furniture-office work chairs: measurement that have been adopted as Croatian
standards as well. European community has followed Directive 90/270/EEC of 29
may also 1990 on the minimum safety and health necessities for work with show
screen device. consistent with this directive, employers are obliged to analyse
workstations, compare the safety and health situations and remedy any dangers
to eyesight, physical issues and problems of mental pressure. So, the required
anthropometric data from the lecture slides and depends on the work station if
a person is standing or sitting. Starting by Stature
(height), Eye height, Shoulder
height, Elbow height, Knuckle height, Chest depth,
Height- sitting, Eye height-sitting, Elbow rest height-sitting, Thigh clearance
height, Knee height-sitting, Buttock-knee distance- sitting, Popliteal height-sitting
(Z. Lvelic,2002).




For the best posture, the workplace station, the desk and the chair
should be adjustable and fits an average weight person. In addition, the
comfort of the chair and the materials use to build it must be very
comfortable.  The measurement Values for
5th to 95th percentile males and females in the seated position used in
designing seating. Height- sitting, Eye height,
Waist Depth, Thigh clearance height, Buttock-knee distance, Knee height, Seat
Length/Depth, Popliteal height-sitting, and Seat Width are shown in table1.
Also, Figure 1 (which is the Proposal design) shows the corresponding
measurement data in alphabetic letters order. The computer or the monitor
should be directly place in front of the eyes with zero slope of the head and
0-degree angle. The data were collected for both male and female with an
overall range and the taking the average of it will bring the optimal demotions.
Statistics from BIFMA Ergonomics Guidelines, 2002.
All measurements are in inches (Openshaw, S.,
& Taylor, A, 2006).





Overall Rang
5th to 95th

Optimal Dim

Height- sitting


31.3″ – 38.3″


Eye height


42.6″ – 52.6″


Waist Depth


7.3″ – 11.4″


Thigh clearance height


21.0″ – 26.8″


Buttock-knee distance


21.3 – 26.3″


Knee height


19.8″ – 28.0″


Seat Length/Depth


16.9″ – 21.1″


Popliteal height-sitting


15.0″ – 19.9″


Seat Width

Not shown

13.9″ – 18.0″























 Table 1      
                                                                                             Figure 1












De Broeck, V. (2010). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work.
doi: 10.2802/10952


ElMaraghy, W. (2018, January 16). The Human Body Systems; Human Factors
and Ergonomics Anthropometrics Data & Biometrics. Retrieved January 23,


Openshaw, S., & Taylor, A. (2006). Ergonomics and Design A Reference
Guide. Retrieved January 23, 2018, from http://www.allsteeloffice.com/SynergyDocuments/ErgonomicsAndDesignReferenceGuideWhitePaper.pdf


Z., Lvelic. (2002, May 14). Office Furniture Design According To A Human Anthropometric Data.
Retrieved January 23, 2018.